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2012年6月大学英语四级模拟题第二套

rain0 于2012-04-24发布 l 已有人阅读

part i writing (30 minutes)

directions: for this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic competition. you should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in chinese:

1. 竞争使人们充满创造力,使人们更有效率。

2. 竞争促使生产出更好的产品和提供更优质的服务。

3. 竞争促进了社会的进一步发展。

competition

part ii reading comprehension (skimming and scanning) (15 minutes)

directions: in this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on answer sheet 1.

for questions 1-7, mark

y (for yes) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;

n (for no) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;

ng (for not given) if the information is not given in the passage.

for questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

earthquake

can scientists predict killer earthquakes?

the date was november 23, 1980. people near naples, in southern italy, felt the earth roll and shake. earthquake! suddenly buildings came tumbling down. cracks appeared in the earth. within minutes, entire towns were destroyed. thousands of people were dead. thousands more were injured.

as rescuers searched through the rubble, many people must have wondered, of only the victims had known ahead of time, many lives could have been saved.

actually, an italian scientist did predict that such a quake would happen. in 1977 dr. m. caputo of the universite degiles studi in rome warned that a large quake would soon strike the east of naples. unfortunately, he couldn’t predict the exact time and date of the quake.

dr. caputo made his general prediction after talking with scientists at 54 earthquake monitoring stations throughout italy. he learned that many earthquakes had recently rocked different areas around naples. but none had occurred in one particular spot east of naples for many years. dr. caputo felt that the area was long overdue for a large quake. and it was.

earthquake strikes in gap

the quake occurred in a region that dr. caputo called a seismic gap. a seismic gap is an area in an active earthquake region where no earthquake or seismic activity has been recorded in a long time. seismic gaps are located where two large plates in the earth have become stuck.

when the plates slide past each other, they sometimes became locked in place. a similar thing happens when you make a running leap on a sidewalk while wearing sneakers. when you land on both feet, the sneakers grab onto rough surface. friction tends to hold your feet back while the rest of your body goes forward. you may end up falling flat on your face.

in the case of plates, however, the uneven surfaces between the plates cause the plates to remain locked in place for years. huge pressure builds up behind each plate. periodically, a shudder, or tremor, is recorded as some of this energy is released.

finally, after about 50 years, rock in the seismic gap either suddenly breaks or moves under the great stress. this sudden release of energy sends shock waves through the rock layers above. the ground shakes, sidewalks crack, and buildings tumble. a mighty quake has struck.

gaps used to predict quakes

many geologists have used what is called the seismic gap technique to accurately predict earthquakes. the technique was first developed by soviet earthquake expert dr. v. fodotov during his studies of ancient and recent japanese earthquakes. dr. fodotov was marking the location, size, and date of all known quakes in japan when he noticed a striking pattern.

all major earthquakes were found to occur in only a few isolated spots in japan. each of these spots, he noted, experienced a major quake only once every 50 to 60 years. dr. fodotov concluded that spots that hadnt had a quake in more than 50 years were “ripe” for a quake. the russian scientist named these locations seismic gaps.

in the past several years, geologists from other countries have found seismic gaps in other parts of the world. after making detailed studies of past quakes in these regions, the geologists were able to make an accurate prediction of when a quake would occur.

how do animals know when an earthquake is coming?

scientists who try to predict earthquakes have gotten some new helpers recently—animals.

that’s right, animals. scientists have begun to catch on to what farmers have known for thousands of years. animals often seem to know in advance that an earthquake is coming, and they show their fear by acting in strange ways. before a chinese quake in 1975, snakes awoke from their winter sleep early only to freeze to death in the cold air. cows broke their halters and tried to escape. chickens refused to enter their coop. all of this unusual behavior, as well as physical changes in the earth, alerted chinese scientists to the coming quake. they moved people away from the danger zone and saved thousands of lives.

one task for scientists today is to learn exactly which types of animal behavior predict quakes. it’s not an easy job. first of all not every animal reacts to the danger of an earthquake. just before a california quake in 1977, for example, an arabian stallion became very nervous and tried to break out of his stall. the horse next to him, however, remained perfectly calm. it’s also difficult at times to tell the difference between normal animal restlessness and “earthquake nerves”. a zoo keeper once called earthquake researchers to say that his cougar had been acting strangely. it turned out that the cat had an upset stomach.

a second task for scientists is to find out exactly what kind of warnings the animals receive. they know that animals sense far more of the world than humans do. many animals can see, hear, and smell things that people do not even notice. some can detect tiny changes in air pressure, gravity, or the magnetism of earth. this extra sense probably helps animals predict quakes.

a good example of this occurred with a group of dogs. they were penned up in an area that was being shaken by a series of tiny earthquakes. (several small quakes often come before or after a large one.) before each quake a low booming sound was heard. each boom caused the dogs to bark wildly. then the dogs began to bark during a silent period. a scientist who was recording tile quakes looked at his machine. it was acting as though there were a loud noise too. the scientist realized that the dogs had reacted to a booming noise. they also sensed the tiny quake that followed it. the machine recorded both, though humans felt and heard nothing.

in this case there was a machine to monitor what the dogs were sensing. many times, however, our machines record nothing out of the ordinary, even though animals know a quake is coming. the animals might be sensing something we so measure but do not recognize as a warning. discovering what animals sense, and learning how they know it is a danger signal, is a job for future scientists.

1.since no one had predicted the precise date of the earthquake striking east of naples, people there suffered heavy loss in the destruction.

2.a seismic gap is located at the junction of two interlocking plates in the earth, and where no seismic activity has been recorded for a long time.

3.from the passage we learn that a regular striking pattern can be found in an active earthquake region.

4.during an earthquake in china 1975, cows broke their halters and ran away from their sheds.

5.as it is used in paragraph 13, the word “cat” refers to a typical domestic cat.

6.all animals but men can notice tiny changed in air pressure, gravity, or the magnetism of earth.

7.the dogs mentioned in paragraph 15 had sensed both the low booms and the minor quakes following them.

1. [y][n][ng]2.[y][n][ng]3.[y][n][ng]

4. [y][n][ng]5.[y][n][ng]6.[y][n][ng]

7. [y][n][ng]

8.dr. caputo based his prediction upon the fact that lots of earthquakes had recently occurred in all areas around naples but its___________.

9.according to the author’s information, every 50 years or so, a mighty earthquake will be recorded at___________________.

10.chinese scientists evacuated people from_____________after they had noticed the strange behavior of some animals as well as physical changes in the earth.

part Ⅳ reading comprehension (reading in depth)(25 minutes)

section a

directions: in this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. you are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. read the passage through carefully before making your choices. each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. please mark the corresponding letter for each item on answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. you may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.

what is it about americans and food? we love to eat, but we feel 47 about it afterward. we say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. we’re 48 with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. perhaps the 49 to this ambivalence lies in our history. the first europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. the first cash crop wasn’t eaten but smoked. then there was prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more 50 ways of doing it.

the immigrant experience, too, has been one of in harmony. do as romans do means eating what “real americans” eat, but our nation’s food has come to be 51 by imports-pizza, say, or hot dogs. and some of the country’s most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles.

perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation’s defining struggles, whether at the boston tea party or the sit-ins at southern lunch counters. it is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or evades meat for political 52 .

but strong opinions have not brought 53 . americans are ambivalent about what they put in their mouths. we have become 54 of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain.

the 55 in food is still prosperous in the american consciousness.it’s no coincidence,then,that the first thanksgiving holds the american imagination in such bondage(束缚).it’s what we eat—and how we 56 it with friends.

[a]answer[b]result[c]share[d]guilty

[e]constant[f]defined[g]vanish[h]adapted

[i]creative[j]belief[k]suspicious[l]certainty

[m]obsessed[n]identify[o]ideals

section b

directions:there are 2 passages in this section. each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. for each of them there are four choices marked [a], [b], [c]and [d].you should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

passage one

questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

it is not often realized that women held a high place in southern european societies in the 10th and 11th centuries. as a wife, the woman was protected by the setting up of a dowry (嫁妆). admittedly, the purpose of this was to protect her against the risk of desertion, but in reality its function in the social and family life of the time was much more important. the dowry was the wife’s right to receive a tenth of all her husband’s property. the wife had the right to with hold consent, in all transactions the husband would make, and more than just a right; the documents show that she enjoyed a real power of decision, equal to that of her husband. in no case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal status of husband and wife.

the wife shared in the management of her husband’s personal property, but the opposite was not always true. women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their own inheritance against husbands who tried to exceed their rights, and on occasion they showed a fine fighting spirit. a case in point is that of maria vivas. having agreed with her husband miro to sell a field she had inherited, for the needs of the household, she insisted on compensation. none being offered, she succeeded in dragging her husband to the scribe to have a contract duly drawn up assigning her a piece of land from miro’s personal inheritance. the unfortunate husband was obliged to agree, as the contract says, “for the sake of peace.” either through the dowry or through being hot-tempered, the wife knew how to win herself, with the context of the family, a powerful economic position.

57.originally, the purpose of a dowry is to_________.

[a]give a woman the right to receive all her husband’s property

[b]help a woman to enjoy a higher position in the family

[c]protect a woman against the risk of desertion

[d]both a and c

58.according to the passage, the legal status of the wife in marriage was__________.

[a]higher than that of a single woman

[b]higher than that of her husband

[c]lower than that of her husband

[d]the same as that of her husband

59. why does the author give us the example of maria vivas?

[a]to show that the wife shared in the management of her husbands personal property.

[b]to show that the wife can defend her own inheritance.

[c]to prove that women have powerful position.

[d]to illustrate how women win her property.

60.the compensation maria vivas got for the field is____________.

[a]some of the land miro had inherited

[b]a tenth of miro’s land

[c]money for household expenses

[d]money form miro’s inheritance

61. the author’s attitude towards maria vivas is_____________.

[a]sympathetic[b]disapproval [c]indifferent [d]objective

passage two

questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.

according to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group. in the family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. in other cases, such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of selection. in larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally through election or recruitment.

although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural leaders”. it seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group.

research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things done”. expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-beings of a social group’s members. expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.

instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group members. they give others and may discipline group members who inhibit attainment of the groups goals. expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to others in the group. they offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. as the difference in these two roles suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members; instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a more distant respect.

62. what does the passage mainly discuss?

[a]the problems faced by leaders.

[b]how leadership differs in small and large groups.

[c]how social groups determine who will lead them.

[d]the role of leaders in social groups.
 

63.the passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leaders except_____________.

[a]recruitment

[b]formal election process

[c]specific leadership training

[d]traditional cultural patterns

64. which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?

[a]a person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.

[b]few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.

[c]a person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.

[d]most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.

65. in mentioning “natural leaders” in line 7, the author is making the point that____________.

[a]few people qualify as “natural leaders”

[b]there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist

[c]“natural leaders” are easily accepted by the members of a group

[d]“natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics

66. the passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on___________.

[a]ensuring harmonious relationships

[b]sharing responsibility with group members

[c]identifying new leaders

[d]achieving a goal

 

part Ⅴcloze (15 minutes)

directions: there are 20 blanks in the following passage. for each blank there are four choices marked [a], [b], [c]and [d]on the right side of the paper. you should choose the one that best fits into the passage. then mark the corresponding letter on answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

if you were to begin a new job tomorrow, you would bring with you some basic strengths and weaknesses. success or 67 in your work would depend, to 68 great extent, 69 your ability to use your strengths and weaknesses to the best advantage. 70 the utmost importance is your attitude. a person 71 begins a job convinced that he isn’t going to like it or is 72 that he is going to ail is exhibiting a weakness which can only hinder his success. on the other hand, a person who is secure 73 his belief that he is probably as capable 74 doing the work as anyone else and who is willing to make a cheerful attempt 75 it possesses a certain strength of purpose. the chances are that he will do well. 76 the prerequisite skills for a particular job is strength. lacking those skills is obviously a weakness. a book keeper who can’t add or a carpenter who can’t cut a straight line with a saw 77 hopeless cases. this book has been designed to help you capitalize 78 the strength and overcome the 79 that you bring to the job of learning. but for your development, you must first 80 stock of where you stand now. 81 we get further along in the book, we’ll be 82 in some detail with specific processes for developing and strengthening 83 skills. however, 84 begin with, you should pause 85 examine your present strengths and weaknesses in three areas that are critical to your success or failure in school: your 86 , your reading and communication skills, and your study habits.

67. [a]improvement[b]victory[c]failure[d]achievement

68. [a]a [b]the[c]some[d]certain

69. [a]in[b]on[c]of[d]to

70. [a]out of[b]of[c]to[d]into

71.[a]who[b]what[c]how[d]which

72.[a]ensure[b]certain[c]sure[d]surely

73.[a]onto[b]on[c]off[d]in

74.[a]to[b]at[c]of[d]for

75.[a]near[b]on[c]by[d]at

76. [a]have[b]had[c]having[d]had been

77.[a]being[b]been[c]are[d]is

78. [a]except[b]but[c]for[d]on

79.[a]idea[b]weakness[c]strength[d]advantage

80.[a]make[b]take[c]do[d]give

81. [a]as[b]till[c]over[d]out

82.[a]deal[b]dealt[c]be dealt[d]dealing

83.[a]learnt [b]learned[c]learning[d]learn

84.[a]around [b]to[c]from[d]beside

85. [a]to [b]onto[c]into[d]with

86.[a]intelligence [b]work[c]attitude[d]weakness

 

part Ⅵ translation (5 minutes)

direction: complete the sentences on answer sheet 2 by translating into english the chinese given in brackets.

87. i should say henry is______________(与其说是个作家不如说是) as a reporter.

88.in the chinese household, grandparents and other relatives______________(起着不可缺少的作用) in raising children.

89. mr. johnson made full preparation for the experiment____________________(以便实验能顺利进行).

90. prices are going up rapidly. petrol now __________________________(价格是几年前的两倍).

91. how close parents are to their children __________________(有很强的影响) the character of the children.

【写作思路】

要求写一篇关于竞争的议论文。要求从以下几个方面阐述:竞争使人们充满创造力,使人们更有效率;竞争促使生产出更好的产品和提供更优质的服务;竞争促进了社会的进一步发展。

【参考范文】

competition

competition makes people more creative and effective. it urges them to plan better, to try harder, and to achieve more. with a desire to excel in their work, people tend to perform more creatively and more efficiently.

competition helps produce better products and provide better services. in the present world of intense competition, every manufacture tries his best to outmatch his competitor by producing goods of better quality at lower costs. as a result, consumers pay less and receive better service.

competition promotes further development of society. if there were no competition, people would remain complacent and be unwilling to make any efforts or risk anything new. however, with fierce competition going on, they exert themselves to accomplish more. their accomplishment will, in one way or another, contribute to the progress of society.

part ii reading comprehension (skimming and scanning)

【全文翻译】

地震科学家能预测危险的地震吗?

1980年11月23日,意大利南部靠近那不勒斯的居民们感觉到大地晃动和颤抖。地震!建筑物在突然间倒塌了,大地出现了裂缝。几分钟内,整个城镇毁于一旦,成千上万的人死了,几千万的人受伤了。

当救援队在瓦砾堆中搜寻救人时,许多人想知道,如果受害者事先知道要发生地震的话,许多生命是否可以得到挽救。

事实上,意大利的一位科学家的确预测到了地震的发生。1977年,罗马degiles studi大学的博士m. caputo先生警告说,不久那不勒斯东部将会发生大地震。不幸的是,他不能准确地预测地震发生的时间和日期。caputo博士的预测是在与遍及意大利的54所地震监测站的科学家交谈后作出的。他发现,最近那不勒斯附近地区发生了多次地震。但是,多年来,那不勒斯东部的有个地方一直没有发生地震。他认为这个地区是在酝酿一次大地震。情况的确如此。

地震发生在空白区

caputo博士把地震发生的区域称为地震空白区。地震空白区位于长期以来没有地震或者地震活动发生的地震活跃区。地震空白区位于地球两大板块的连接处。

当地震板块彼此滑过对方时,它们有时会被锁在一起。当你穿着运动鞋在人行道上跳跃时,也会发生类似的情况。当你双脚着地时,运动鞋会与粗糙的地面粘在一起,摩擦力会使你的脚后倾,同时你的身体却会前倾。你可能最终会跌得鼻青脸肿。

然而,地震板块表面是不均匀的,这会使它们锁在一起很多年。每个板块后都积聚着巨大的压力。当其中的一些能量释时,就会出现定期的震颤或者震动。

最后,在大约50年之后,地震空白区中的岩石或者突然崩裂或者以巨大的压力移动。这种突然释放的能量会让地震波穿过岩层直达地面,于是地面震动了,人行横道断裂了,建筑物倒塌了,强大的地震发生了。

利用地震空白区来预测地震

许多地质学家们已经使用地震空白区技术来准确地预测地震。该项技术是由苏联地震专家v. fodotov博士在研究日本古代和近代地震时首先使用的。在标注日本已发生地震的地点规模和日期时,他发现了一个明显的特点。

日本所有的大地震都发生在几个孤立的地区。fodotov博士指出,这些地方仅隔50到60年就会发生一次大地震;他还断言说,50年以上没有发生地震的区域是地震的“成熟”区。俄罗斯科学家将这些区域命名为地震空白区。

在过去的几年中,其他国家的地质学家在世界的其他地方也发现了地震空白区。经过对这些地区以往地震的详细研究,地质学家能够精确地预测地震发生的时间。

动物是如何知道地震即将来临的?

最近,试图预测地震的科学家们找到了一些新的帮手——动物。

没错,就是动物。科学家们开始了解到农民已经知道了数千年之久的情况。动物通常事先知道地震即将来临,并以奇怪的方式表现出恐惧。在中1975年国发生地震前,冬眠的蛇过早地醒来,结果冻死在寒冷的空气中;奶牛挣断缰绳,企图逃跑;鸡拒绝进入鸡舍。所有这些不寻常的行为以及地球自身的变化,使中国科学家充分地认识到地震即将来临。他们让地震危险区的居民搬迁出来,从而挽救了成千上万人的性命。

要准确了解到底哪类动物的行为可以预测地震,这是科学家目前的一个任务,但这不是一件容易的事情。首先不是每个动物都能对地震的危险作出反应。例如,在1977年加州地震之前,一匹阿拉伯种马变得非常紧张,试图跑出马厩;但是,他旁边的那匹马仍然非常安静。有时侯,也很难分辨出正常动物的不安和“地震(造成)的紧张”。有位动物管理员曾经对地震研究人员说,他的美洲狮一直行为怪怪的,结果证明是其胃部不舒服。

弄清楚到底动物收到了什么样的警告,这是科学家的另外一个任务。他们知道,动物的感觉比人的更敏感。许多动物能看到、听到、闻到人察觉不到的东西。一些动物能够感觉到气压、重力或者地球磁场的微小变化。这种特别的感觉可能有助于动物预测地震。

发生在一群狗身上的事情是这方面的一个很好的例子。关这群狗的地方正在发生一系列的小地震。(大地震前后常会发生一些小地震。)每次地震前都能听到一声低沉的爆炸声,每次爆炸声都会引起狗的疯狂乱叫。后来,狗在没有爆炸声一段时期也开始叫喊。一位正在记录瓦块地震的科学家注意到他的机器也好像表现出有巨大声音的样子。他意识到,狗对一次巨大的声音作出了反应,它们也感觉到了随后发生的轻微地震。尽管人类什么都没有感觉到、也没有听到,这台机器却记录下了这一切。

在这种情况下,有一个机器监视着狗的感应。然而,有许多次,尽管动物知道地震即将来临,但我们的机器却没有记录下任何异常的活动。动物可能会感觉到我们所测量的情况,但没有把它看作是一种警告。发现动物感应到什么,并了解他们是如何知道这是一种危险的信号,这是科学家今后的工作。

【答案解析】

1.【解析】[y]根据第一段。

2. 【解析】[y]根据earthquakes strikes in gap 的第一段判断。

3. 【解析】[y]根据gaps used to predict quakes 中的最后一段最后一句判断正确。

4.【解析】[n]根据第十二段,cows broke their halters and tried to escape. 并没有交代ran away from their sheds。

5. 【解析】[n]这里的cat 指的是cougar。

6. 【解析】[n]根据第十四段最后三句话,我们可以得出,并不是所有的动物都能感受到的。

7.【解析】[y]参看第十五段。

8. 【解析】east根据第三段,but none had occurred in one particular spot east of naples for many years.

9. 【解析】the seismic gap根据第七段,finally, after about 50 years, rock in the seismic gap either suddenly breaks or moves under the great stress.

10.【解析】the danger zone/the prospective quake zone根据第十四段,they moved people away from the danger zone and saved thousands of lives. 如果能写出the prospective quake zone 也是可以的。

part Ⅳ reading comprehension (reading in depth)

section a

【全文翻译】

美国人如何看待食物呢?我们爱吃,但是过后会觉得内疚。我们说我们只要最好的,但是却热衷于享受垃圾食品;我们很重视健康和减肥,但是肥胖却又空前地在蔓延。也许,这种矛盾源于我们的历史。首批来到这个大陆的欧洲人是为了寻找新的香料,但却一无所获;首种经济作物不是用来吃的,而是用来吸得。那时,旨在禁止酗酒的禁酒令,实际上却激发了更多新奇的方法来酗酒。

移民的经历也与此有内在的关系。入乡随俗意味着要吃“典型的美国人”的饮食,但是美国的食物已经被诸如比萨或者热狗这样的舶来品所诠释了。美国最珍贵的一些烹饪来自于戴着镣铐而来的人们。

无论是在波士顿倾茶事件中,还是在南部午餐柜台前的静坐中,食物都曾被用来作为界定斗争的一种手段,这也许是不足为奇的。无论是出于宗教原因而戒酒,还是由于政治避难而戒肉,这都与我们的健康甚至是道德的观念相一致。

但是,这些坚定的观点并不是确定不变的。美国人对他们所吃的食物的态度是矛盾的。我们怀疑我们的食物,特别是当我们更清楚地了解了它们的成分时。

对食物的信仰一直存在于美国人的意识之中。第一个感恩节就把美国人的想象力束缚在食物之中,束缚在我们与朋友对它的分享之中,这并不是偶然的。

【答案解析】

47. 【解析】[d] feel是一个系动词,可以判断此处应填入一个形容词,通过上下文意思,以及后面介词about, 可以确定选项为d项guilty, 短语feel guilty about sth. “对……感到有愧”。全句的意思为“我们很爱吃,但是往往在吃完之后又有负罪感”。

48.【解析】[m] be obsessed with 为固定搭配,原意为“被……附上/缠住/迷住心窍”,放在本句表示“十分重视”。全句的意思为“我们很重视健康和减肥,但肥胖却又空前地在蔓延”。

49.【解析】[a]本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词to的搭配,可以推断出正确选项answer。

50.【解析】[i]本句根据more和ways可以判断出需要填入一个形容词构成比较级,根据上下文,表示“旨在禁止酗酒的禁酒令,却激发了更多新奇的方法来酗酒”,可以确定i为正确选项。

51. 【解析】[f]本题较难。根据be 和by 确定应填入一个过去分词。再根据上下文,上文表示“应该吃典型的美国人吃的食物”,下文通过 but 转折,表示实际上“美国的食物已经被诸如比萨和热狗这样的舶来品所诠释了”,因此可以确定f为正确选项。

52.【解析】[b]政治结果,可根据宗教原因religious reasons来推断此处填政治结果。

53.【解析】[l]由于横线后面没有宾语,可以确定不是形成bring的短语,这样本句所缺的为一名词,作bring的宾语。根据下文解释,“美国人对他们所吃的食物的态度是矛盾的”,可以推出本句意思为“坚定的观点也不是确定不变的”。因此可以确定l为正确选项。

54.【解析】[k]系动词become后应填入一个形容词,和后面介词of形成短语be/become suspicious of “对……感到怀疑”。

55.【解析】[j]本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词in的搭配,可以推断出正确选项belief,(have)belief in sth.“ 相信……”。

56.【解析】[c]本句是一般现在时,缺一个动词,且和with 搭配,确定选项share, share sth. with sb., “与某人分享某事”。

section b

passage one

【全文翻译】

欧洲南部的妇女在10和11世纪时享有较高的社会地位,这并未获得广泛认识。作为一个妻子,女性的地位受到其嫁妆的保护。诚然,嫁妆最初的目的是防止女性被抛弃;但是,它在当时家庭和社会现实生活中起着更重要的作用。妻子的嫁妆使她有权获得其丈夫十分之一的财物。妻子有权利拒绝丈夫所做的任何交易,但这不仅仅只是一项权利而已;文件表明她与丈夫一样平等地享有真正的决定权。文件没有表明丈夫和妻子在法律地位上有任何差别。

妻子享有管理丈夫私人财产的权利,但是反之则不然。如果丈夫要越权侵犯她们的利益,女性们会时刻准备着捍卫自己的利益,有时她们还会表现出一种坚强的斗争精神。maria vivas就是一个典型的例子。为了家庭的需要,她同意其丈夫miro出售一块属于她的土地,但是她坚持要求获得补偿。但是丈夫没有给她提供补偿,于是她把丈夫拖到一个文书处,起草了一份合同,成功地把他丈夫的一块私人土地划归自己。正如合同所写的,“为了和平”,这个不幸的丈夫不得不同意。要么借助嫁妆,要么通过发脾气,妻子知道如何在家庭中为自己赢得强大的经济地位。

57. 【解析】[c]推断题。本文介绍了欧洲南部10和11世纪嫁妆对女性在婚姻中地位的重要性。虽然嫁妆最初的目的是防止女性被抛弃,但实际上它的作用远远不止于此。它使妻子在婚姻中的地位与丈夫平等,并保障了妻子的经济利益。女性在维护自己的利益上,是很坚定果敢的,maria vivas就是一个例子。见第一段第三句,“admittedly, the purpose of this was to protect her against the risk of desertion...”,虽然在实际生活中嫁妆有更重要的作用,但最初它的作用只是为了防范女性被丈夫抛弃,所以c为正确答案。

58.【解析】[d]细节题。根据本文,妻子在婚姻中的法律地位和丈夫是平等的。见第一段最后一句,“in no case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal status of husband and wife”文件中并没有表明丈夫和妻子在法律地位上有任何的差别,也就是说他们的地位是平等的,所以d为正确答案。

59.【解析】[b]推断题。作者举maria vivas的事例,是为了说明妻子是能够捍卫自己的利益的。见第二段第二句,“women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their own inheritance...they showed a fine fighting spirit.”如果丈夫要侵占自己的利益,女性们就时刻准备着捍卫自己的利益,有时她们还表现出很强的斗争精神。接下来作者就举了maria vivas的例子,说明女性是有能力捍卫自己的利益的。所以b为正确答案。

60.【解析】[a]细节题。maria vivas得到的一份作为补偿的土地,本来是属于miro的个人财产。见第二段第五句,“none being offered, she succeeded in... assigning her a piece of land from miros personal inheritance”由此知a为正确答案。

61.【解析】[d]推断题。作者对maria vivas所持的态度是客观的。作者客观地介绍了maria vivas的事例,并没有表示出同情、不满或者是漠不关心,所以a、b、c都是错误答案。

passage two

【全文翻译】

社会学家认为,有几种不同的方法可以使人成为某个社会群体公认的领导者。在家庭生活中,传统的文化模式赋予父母一方或者双方领导的地位。在其他情况下,比如友谊团体,尽管没有正式的选举程序,一个或更多的人会逐渐地成为领导。在比较大的群体中,领导者通常是通过正式的选举或招募的形式产生的。

虽然通常认为领导具有人不同寻常的个人能力,数十年的研究未能找出可靠的证据来证明那些人是“天生的领导者”。看起来似乎没有所有的领导都具有的固定的个人品格;相反,只要具有适合某个特别群体所需要的品质,几乎任何人都可以成为其领导。

研究表明,通常不同的人会充当两种不同的领导角色。指导型领导注重社会群体目标的实现。群体成员期望指导型领导人“把事情搞定”。 另一方面,表现型领导则强调社会群体成员的集体幸福。表现型领导并不侧重于群体目标的实现,而是注重为群体成员提供情感支持,并尽力减少内部的紧张和纷争。

指导型领导与其他的群体成员之间的关系可能是相当次要的。他们可能会约束阻止实现群体目标的成员的行为。表现型领导则与群体其他成员之间建立了一种更私人的或者相当重要的关系。当有人经历过困难时,他们表示同情,并设法解决危及群体分裂的问题。正如这两种不同角色所表明的那样:表现型领导一般会从群体成员那里获得更多的个人感情;而指导型领导,如果他们能成功地实现群体的目标,可能会获得更广泛的尊重。

【答案解析】

62.【解析】[d]主旨题。本篇主要讨论不同的领导者(如instrumental leaders以及expressive leaders)在不同的社会群体中所充当的角色和发挥的功能。所以d为正确答案。a、b、c选项都不能正确概括本文主旨。

63.【解析】[c]细节题。a选项的招募(recruitment)和b选项选举程序(election process)都在第一段中作为大群体的领导者产生的方式被明确提到。d选项也在第一段中作为家庭领导者的产生的方式被明确提到。只有c选项没有作为产生领导者的一种方式在本文中被提及。

64.【解析】[a]推断题。a选项意思是:某一特定群体的有效领导者,不一定就可以成为另一群体的有效领导者。这正好与第二段的意思相吻合,即领导者没有一个固定的特点,只是符合了一个特定群体需要的人就有可能成为该群体的领导者(it seems...virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group)。b选项和c选项的意思与本文无关。d选项意为:许多人想成为领导者,但却很少能拿出证据来证明他们具有这样的资格。显然是对文章意思的曲解。

65.【解析】[b]细节题。第二段中“...decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of ‘natural leaders’”意思是说数十年来的研究并不能找出可靠证据来证明哪些人可以成为“天生领导者”,与b项意思一致。

66.【解析】[d]细节题。第三、四段主要讲了两种类型的领导者的区别。其中instrumental leader侧重于群体目标的实现,而expressive leader相对于前者并不侧重于群体目标的实现,而是注重为群体成员提供情感支持,并尽力减少内部纷争。(expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.)

part Ⅴcloze

【全文翻译】

如果你计划明天开始一个新的工作,你的一些基本的优缺点也会与你同行。成功或失败在很大的程度上取决于你是否能够扬长避短。最重要的是你的态度。如果一个刚刚开始工作的人就深信自己不会喜欢或者肯定不适应这项工作,那么妨碍他成功的缺点就暴露出来了。另一方面,如果一个人确信他可能会与其他人一样有能力完成这项工作,并心甘情愿地去尝试,他就具有了某种目的性的优势。很可能他会做得很好。具有某一工作的必要技能是一种优势,而缺乏这些技能显然就会处于劣势。一个记账员不会计数,或者一个木匠不能用锯子切割出一条直线,这都是令人绝望的例子。本书的目的是帮助你发挥自己的优势,克服自己学习中的劣势。但是为了你的发展,你必须要清楚自己现在的位置。随着书中内容的进一步深入,我们将详细论述发展和加强学习技能的具体过程。但是,首先,你应该停下来,去审视一下自己目前在以下三个方面存在的优点和缺点,这三个方面对你学业的成功或失败至关重要:态度、阅读和沟通的技巧、学习习惯。

【答案解析】

67. 【解析】[c]本句的意思是“成功或失败在很大程度上取决于你是否能扬长避短。”improvement改进;victory胜利;achievement成果,成就。这三个词都不合题意,只有[c]failure“失败”最合适。

68.【解析】[a]to a great extent是固定短语,意思是“很大程度上”,符合题意。类似的说法还有:to a large extent,to some extent, to an extent, to a certain extent, to that extent, to the extent of...。the, some, certain都不能与great extent搭配。

69.【解析】[b]on与前面的depend构成本句谓语。

70.【解析】[b]of与名词连用,表示具有某种性质、状态,作表语。置于句首,表示强调。正常语序为:your attitude is of the utmost importance.

71.【解析】[a]person后应当是定语从句,“开始工作的那个人”。

72.【解析】[c]本句的意思是“如果一个刚刚开始工作的人就深信自己不会喜欢或肯定不适应这项工作,那么阻碍他成功的缺点就暴露出来了。”or后面省略了主语he。ensure保证;certain肯定的(只能用于it作主语的句子里);surely确实地;sure肯定的。

73.【解析】[d]in one’s belief相信。其他选项都不能与belief搭配。

74.【解析】[c]capable of doing是固定搭配,意为“能够干什么”。

75.【解析】[d]attempt用作名词,后接介词at,意为“试图,努力”;如果后面接介词on,表示攻击的意思。其他两项都不能与attempt搭配。

76.【解析】[c]本句的意思是“具有某一工作的必要技能是一个优势”,此处应填句子的主语,故选动名词having。

77. 【解析】[d]本句主语是a book keeper or carpenter...。根据主谓一致原则,其谓语应当用单数is,而不是复数are。being, been都是分词,应该排除。

78.【解析】[d]on与前面的capitalize搭配,表示“利用”。作不定式help的补语。其他选项不能与capitalize搭配。

79.【解析】[b]本句的意思是“克服缺点”,应选weakness(缺点,弱点)。idea观点;strength优点;advantage优势。

80.【解析】[b]固定短语take stock of,意为“对……估价,对……作出判断”。

81.【解析】[a]本句的意思是:“随着更深入的阅读”,从语法角度,此处应填关联词。四个选项中,只有as能用作关联词。

82.【解析】[d]选项a、 b、 c分别是deal(处理,论述,涉及)的原形、过去分词及被动语态。根据语法和语义,此处应填将来进行时,意思是“随着书中内容的进一步深入,我们将详细论述发展和加强学习技能的具体过程。”

83.【解析】[c]根据上下文,这里应当指“学习技能”。

84.【解析】[b]固定短语to begin with,意为“首先,第一”,常用作插入语。

85.【解析】[a]谓语动词pause后,examine又是动词原形,所以这里应当选to,可构成动词不定式,作目的状语。其余选项都是介词,不合题意。

86.【解析】[c]本句对全文进行总结概括,与文章的第三句相呼应,of the utmost importance is your attitude故选attitude。

part Ⅵ translation

87.【答案】not so much a writer

88.【答案】play indispensable roles

89.【答案】so that it could be conducted smoothly

90.【答案】is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago

91.【答案】has a strong influence on

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