part i writing (30 minutes)
directions: for this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic competition. you should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in chinese:
part ii reading comprehension (skimming and scanning) (15 minutes)
directions: in this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on answer sheet 1.
for questions 1-7, mark
y (for yes) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
n (for no) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
ng (for not given) if the information is not given in the passage.
for questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
can scientists predict killer earthquakes?
the date was november 23, 1980. people near naples, in southern italy, felt the earth roll and shake. earthquake! suddenly buildings came tumbling down. cracks appeared in the earth. within minutes, entire towns were destroyed. thousands of people were dead. thousands more were injured.
as rescuers searched through the rubble, many people must have wondered, of only the victims had known ahead of time, many lives could have been saved.
actually, an italian scientist did predict that such a quake would happen. in 1977 dr. m. caputo of the universite degiles studi in rome warned that a large quake would soon strike the east of naples. unfortunately, he couldn’t predict the exact time and date of the quake.
dr. caputo made his general prediction after talking with scientists at 54 earthquake monitoring stations throughout italy. he learned that many earthquakes had recently rocked different areas around naples. but none had occurred in one particular spot east of naples for many years. dr. caputo felt that the area was long overdue for a large quake. and it was.
earthquake strikes in gap
the quake occurred in a region that dr. caputo called a seismic gap. a seismic gap is an area in an active earthquake region where no earthquake or seismic activity has been recorded in a long time. seismic gaps are located where two large plates in the earth have become stuck.
when the plates slide past each other, they sometimes became locked in place. a similar thing happens when you make a running leap on a sidewalk while wearing sneakers. when you land on both feet, the sneakers grab onto rough surface. friction tends to hold your feet back while the rest of your body goes forward. you may end up falling flat on your face.
in the case of plates, however, the uneven surfaces between the plates cause the plates to remain locked in place for years. huge pressure builds up behind each plate. periodically, a shudder, or tremor, is recorded as some of this energy is released.
finally, after about 50 years, rock in the seismic gap either suddenly breaks or moves under the great stress. this sudden release of energy sends shock waves through the rock layers above. the ground shakes, sidewalks crack, and buildings tumble. a mighty quake has struck.
gaps used to predict quakes
many geologists have used what is called the seismic gap technique to accurately predict earthquakes. the technique was first developed by soviet earthquake expert dr. v. fodotov during his studies of ancient and recent japanese earthquakes. dr. fodotov was marking the location, size, and date of all known quakes in japan when he noticed a striking pattern.
all major earthquakes were found to occur in only a few isolated spots in japan. each of these spots, he noted, experienced a major quake only once every 50 to 60 years. dr. fodotov concluded that spots that hadnt had a quake in more than 50 years were “ripe” for a quake. the russian scientist named these locations seismic gaps.
in the past several years, geologists from other countries have found seismic gaps in other parts of the world. after making detailed studies of past quakes in these regions, the geologists were able to make an accurate prediction of when a quake would occur.
how do animals know when an earthquake is coming?
scientists who try to predict earthquakes have gotten some new helpers recently—animals.
that’s right, animals. scientists have begun to catch on to what farmers have known for thousands of years. animals often seem to know in advance that an earthquake is coming, and they show their fear by acting in strange ways. before a chinese quake in 1975, snakes awoke from their winter sleep early only to freeze to death in the cold air. cows broke their halters and tried to escape. chickens refused to enter their coop. all of this unusual behavior, as well as physical changes in the earth, alerted chinese scientists to the coming quake. they moved people away from the danger zone and saved thousands of lives.
one task for scientists today is to learn exactly which types of animal behavior predict quakes. it’s not an easy job. first of all not every animal reacts to the danger of an earthquake. just before a california quake in 1977, for example, an arabian stallion became very nervous and tried to break out of his stall. the horse next to him, however, remained perfectly calm. it’s also difficult at times to tell the difference between normal animal restlessness and “earthquake nerves”. a zoo keeper once called earthquake researchers to say that his cougar had been acting strangely. it turned out that the cat had an upset stomach.
a second task for scientists is to find out exactly what kind of warnings the animals receive. they know that animals sense far more of the world than humans do. many animals can see, hear, and smell things that people do not even notice. some can detect tiny changes in air pressure, gravity, or the magnetism of earth. this extra sense probably helps animals predict quakes.
a good example of this occurred with a group of dogs. they were penned up in an area that was being shaken by a series of tiny earthquakes. (several small quakes often come before or after a large one.) before each quake a low booming sound was heard. each boom caused the dogs to bark wildly. then the dogs began to bark during a silent period. a scientist who was recording tile quakes looked at his machine. it was acting as though there were a loud noise too. the scientist realized that the dogs had reacted to a booming noise. they also sensed the tiny quake that followed it. the machine recorded both, though humans felt and heard nothing.
in this case there was a machine to monitor what the dogs were sensing. many times, however, our machines record nothing out of the ordinary, even though animals know a quake is coming. the animals might be sensing something we so measure but do not recognize as a warning. discovering what animals sense, and learning how they know it is a danger signal, is a job for future scientists.
1.since no one had predicted the precise date of the earthquake striking east of naples, people there suffered heavy loss in the destruction.
2.a seismic gap is located at the junction of two interlocking plates in the earth, and where no seismic activity has been recorded for a long time.
3.from the passage we learn that a regular striking pattern can be found in an active earthquake region.
4.during an earthquake in china 1975, cows broke their halters and ran away from their sheds.
5.as it is used in paragraph 13, the word “cat” refers to a typical domestic cat.
6.all animals but men can notice tiny changed in air pressure, gravity, or the magnetism of earth.
7.the dogs mentioned in paragraph 15 had sensed both the low booms and the minor quakes following them.
8.dr. caputo based his prediction upon the fact that lots of earthquakes had recently occurred in all areas around naples but its___________.
9.according to the author’s information, every 50 years or so, a mighty earthquake will be recorded at___________________.
10.chinese scientists evacuated people from_____________after they had noticed the strange behavior of some animals as well as physical changes in the earth.
part Ⅳ reading comprehension (reading in depth)(25 minutes)
directions: in this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. you are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. read the passage through carefully before making your choices. each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. please mark the corresponding letter for each item on answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. you may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
what is it about americans and food? we love to eat, but we feel 47 about it afterward. we say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. we’re 48 with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. perhaps the 49 to this ambivalence lies in our history. the first europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. the first cash crop wasn’t eaten but smoked. then there was prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more 50 ways of doing it.
the immigrant experience, too, has been one of in harmony. do as romans do means eating what “real americans” eat, but our nation’s food has come to be 51 by imports-pizza, say, or hot dogs. and some of the country’s most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles.
perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation’s defining struggles, whether at the boston tea party or the sit-ins at southern lunch counters. it is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or evades meat for political 52 .
but strong opinions have not brought 53 . americans are ambivalent about what they put in their mouths. we have become 54 of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain.
the 55 in food is still prosperous in the american consciousness.it’s no coincidence,then,that the first thanksgiving holds the american imagination in such bondage(束缚).it’s what we eat—and how we 56 it with friends.
directions:there are 2 passages in this section. each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. for each of them there are four choices marked [a], [b], [c]and [d].you should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
it is not often realized that women held a high place in southern european societies in the 10th and 11th centuries. as a wife, the woman was protected by the setting up of a dowry (嫁妆). admittedly, the purpose of this was to protect her against the risk of desertion, but in reality its function in the social and family life of the time was much more important. the dowry was the wife’s right to receive a tenth of all her husband’s property. the wife had the right to with hold consent, in all transactions the husband would make, and more than just a right; the documents show that she enjoyed a real power of decision, equal to that of her husband. in no case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal status of husband and wife.
the wife shared in the management of her husband’s personal property, but the opposite was not always true. women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their own inheritance against husbands who tried to exceed their rights, and on occasion they showed a fine fighting spirit. a case in point is that of maria vivas. having agreed with her husband miro to sell a field she had inherited, for the needs of the household, she insisted on compensation. none being offered, she succeeded in dragging her husband to the scribe to have a contract duly drawn up assigning her a piece of land from miro’s personal inheritance. the unfortunate husband was obliged to agree, as the contract says, “for the sake of peace.” either through the dowry or through being hot-tempered, the wife knew how to win herself, with the context of the family, a powerful economic position.
57.originally, the purpose of a dowry is to_________.
[a]give a woman the right to receive all her husband’s property
[b]help a woman to enjoy a higher position in the family
[c]protect a woman against the risk of desertion
[d]both a and c
58.according to the passage, the legal status of the wife in marriage was__________.
[a]higher than that of a single woman
[b]higher than that of her husband
[c]lower than that of her husband
[d]the same as that of her husband
59. why does the author give us the example of maria vivas?
[a]to show that the wife shared in the management of her husbands personal property.
[b]to show that the wife can defend her own inheritance.
[c]to prove that women have powerful position.
[d]to illustrate how women win her property.
60.the compensation maria vivas got for the field is____________.
[a]some of the land miro had inherited
[b]a tenth of miro’s land
[c]money for household expenses
[d]money form miro’s inheritance
61. the author’s attitude towards maria vivas is_____________.
[a]sympathetic[b]disapproval [c]indifferent [d]objective
questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
according to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group. in the family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. in other cases, such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of selection. in larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally through election or recruitment.
although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural leaders”. it seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group.
research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things done”. expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-beings of a social group’s members. expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.
instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group members. they give others and may discipline group members who inhibit attainment of the groups goals. expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to others in the group. they offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. as the difference in these two roles suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members; instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a more distant respect.
62. what does the passage mainly discuss?
[a]the problems faced by leaders.
[b]how leadership differs in small and large groups.
[c]how social groups determine who will lead them.
[d]the role of leaders in social groups.
63.the passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leaders except_____________.
[b]formal election process
[c]specific leadership training
[d]traditional cultural patterns
64. which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?
[a]a person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.
[b]few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.
[c]a person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.
[d]most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
65. in mentioning “natural leaders” in line 7, the author is making the point that____________.
[a]few people qualify as “natural leaders”
[b]there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist
[c]“natural leaders” are easily accepted by the members of a group
[d]“natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics
66. the passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on___________.
[a]ensuring harmonious relationships
[b]sharing responsibility with group members
[c]identifying new leaders
[d]achieving a goal
part Ⅴcloze (15 minutes)
directions: there are 20 blanks in the following passage. for each blank there are four choices marked [a], [b], [c]and [d]on the right side of the paper. you should choose the one that best fits into the passage. then mark the corresponding letter on answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
if you were to begin a new job tomorrow, you would bring with you some basic strengths and weaknesses. success or 67 in your work would depend, to 68 great extent, 69 your ability to use your strengths and weaknesses to the best advantage. 70 the utmost importance is your attitude. a person 71 begins a job convinced that he isn’t going to like it or is 72 that he is going to ail is exhibiting a weakness which can only hinder his success. on the other hand, a person who is secure 73 his belief that he is probably as capable 74 doing the work as anyone else and who is willing to make a cheerful attempt 75 it possesses a certain strength of purpose. the chances are that he will do well. 76 the prerequisite skills for a particular job is strength. lacking those skills is obviously a weakness. a book keeper who can’t add or a carpenter who can’t cut a straight line with a saw 77 hopeless cases. this book has been designed to help you capitalize 78 the strength and overcome the 79 that you bring to the job of learning. but for your development, you must first 80 stock of where you stand now. 81 we get further along in the book, we’ll be 82 in some detail with specific processes for developing and strengthening 83 skills. however, 84 begin with, you should pause 85 examine your present strengths and weaknesses in three areas that are critical to your success or failure in school: your 86 , your reading and communication skills, and your study habits.
68. [a]a [b]the[c]some[d]certain
70. [a]out of[b]of[c]to[d]into
76. [a]have[b]had[c]having[d]had been
85. [a]to [b]onto[c]into[d]with
part Ⅵ translation (5 minutes)
direction: complete the sentences on answer sheet 2 by translating into english the chinese given in brackets.
87. i should say henry is______________(与其说是个作家不如说是) as a reporter.
88.in the chinese household, grandparents and other relatives______________(起着不可缺少的作用) in raising children.
89. mr. johnson made full preparation for the experiment____________________(以便实验能顺利进行).
90. prices are going up rapidly. petrol now __________________________(价格是几年前的两倍).
91. how close parents are to their children __________________(有很强的影响) the character of the children.
competition makes people more creative and effective. it urges them to plan better, to try harder, and to achieve more. with a desire to excel in their work, people tend to perform more creatively and more efficiently.
competition helps produce better products and provide better services. in the present world of intense competition, every manufacture tries his best to outmatch his competitor by producing goods of better quality at lower costs. as a result, consumers pay less and receive better service.
competition promotes further development of society. if there were no competition, people would remain complacent and be unwilling to make any efforts or risk anything new. however, with fierce competition going on, they exert themselves to accomplish more. their accomplishment will, in one way or another, contribute to the progress of society.
part ii reading comprehension (skimming and scanning)
事实上，意大利的一位科学家的确预测到了地震的发生。1977年，罗马degiles studi大学的博士m. caputo先生警告说，不久那不勒斯东部将会发生大地震。不幸的是，他不能准确地预测地震发生的时间和日期。caputo博士的预测是在与遍及意大利的54所地震监测站的科学家交谈后作出的。他发现，最近那不勒斯附近地区发生了多次地震。但是，多年来，那不勒斯东部的有个地方一直没有发生地震。他认为这个地区是在酝酿一次大地震。情况的确如此。
2. 【解析】[y]根据earthquakes strikes in gap 的第一段判断。
3. 【解析】[y]根据gaps used to predict quakes 中的最后一段最后一句判断正确。
4.【解析】[n]根据第十二段，cows broke their halters and tried to escape. 并没有交代ran away from their sheds。
5. 【解析】[n]这里的cat 指的是cougar。
8. 【解析】east根据第三段，but none had occurred in one particular spot east of naples for many years.
9. 【解析】the seismic gap根据第七段，finally, after about 50 years, rock in the seismic gap either suddenly breaks or moves under the great stress.
10.【解析】the danger zone/the prospective quake zone根据第十四段，they moved people away from the danger zone and saved thousands of lives. 如果能写出the prospective quake zone 也是可以的。
part Ⅳ reading comprehension (reading in depth)
47. 【解析】[d] feel是一个系动词，可以判断此处应填入一个形容词，通过上下文意思，以及后面介词about, 可以确定选项为d项guilty, 短语feel guilty about sth. “对……感到有愧”。全句的意思为“我们很爱吃，但是往往在吃完之后又有负罪感”。
48.【解析】[m] be obsessed with 为固定搭配，原意为“被……附上/缠住/迷住心窍”，放在本句表示“十分重视”。全句的意思为“我们很重视健康和减肥，但肥胖却又空前地在蔓延”。
51. 【解析】[f]本题较难。根据be 和by 确定应填入一个过去分词。再根据上下文，上文表示“应该吃典型的美国人吃的食物”，下文通过 but 转折，表示实际上“美国的食物已经被诸如比萨和热狗这样的舶来品所诠释了”，因此可以确定f为正确选项。
54.【解析】[k]系动词become后应填入一个形容词，和后面介词of形成短语be/become suspicious of “对……感到怀疑”。
55.【解析】[j]本句缺一个名词作主语，并且根据和介词in的搭配，可以推断出正确选项belief，(have)belief in sth.“ 相信……”。
56.【解析】[c]本句是一般现在时，缺一个动词，且和with 搭配，确定选项share, share sth. with sb., “与某人分享某事”。
57. 【解析】[c]推断题。本文介绍了欧洲南部10和11世纪嫁妆对女性在婚姻中地位的重要性。虽然嫁妆最初的目的是防止女性被抛弃，但实际上它的作用远远不止于此。它使妻子在婚姻中的地位与丈夫平等，并保障了妻子的经济利益。女性在维护自己的利益上，是很坚定果敢的，maria vivas就是一个例子。见第一段第三句，“admittedly, the purpose of this was to protect her against the risk of desertion...”，虽然在实际生活中嫁妆有更重要的作用，但最初它的作用只是为了防范女性被丈夫抛弃，所以c为正确答案。
58.【解析】[d]细节题。根据本文，妻子在婚姻中的法律地位和丈夫是平等的。见第一段最后一句，“in no case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal status of husband and wife”文件中并没有表明丈夫和妻子在法律地位上有任何的差别，也就是说他们的地位是平等的，所以d为正确答案。
59.【解析】[b]推断题。作者举maria vivas的事例，是为了说明妻子是能够捍卫自己的利益的。见第二段第二句，“women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their own inheritance...they showed a fine fighting spirit.”如果丈夫要侵占自己的利益，女性们就时刻准备着捍卫自己的利益，有时她们还表现出很强的斗争精神。接下来作者就举了maria vivas的例子，说明女性是有能力捍卫自己的利益的。所以b为正确答案。
60.【解析】[a]细节题。maria vivas得到的一份作为补偿的土地，本来是属于miro的个人财产。见第二段第五句，“none being offered, she succeeded in... assigning her a piece of land from miros personal inheritance”由此知a为正确答案。
61.【解析】[d]推断题。作者对maria vivas所持的态度是客观的。作者客观地介绍了maria vivas的事例，并没有表示出同情、不满或者是漠不关心，所以a、b、c都是错误答案。
62.【解析】[d]主旨题。本篇主要讨论不同的领导者(如instrumental leaders以及expressive leaders)在不同的社会群体中所充当的角色和发挥的功能。所以d为正确答案。a、b、c选项都不能正确概括本文主旨。
64.【解析】[a]推断题。a选项意思是:某一特定群体的有效领导者，不一定就可以成为另一群体的有效领导者。这正好与第二段的意思相吻合，即领导者没有一个固定的特点，只是符合了一个特定群体需要的人就有可能成为该群体的领导者(it seems...virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group)。b选项和c选项的意思与本文无关。d选项意为:许多人想成为领导者，但却很少能拿出证据来证明他们具有这样的资格。显然是对文章意思的曲解。
65.【解析】[b]细节题。第二段中“...decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of ‘natural leaders’”意思是说数十年来的研究并不能找出可靠证据来证明哪些人可以成为“天生领导者”，与b项意思一致。
66.【解析】[d]细节题。第三、四段主要讲了两种类型的领导者的区别。其中instrumental leader侧重于群体目标的实现，而expressive leader相对于前者并不侧重于群体目标的实现，而是注重为群体成员提供情感支持，并尽力减少内部纷争。(expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.)
68.【解析】[a]to a great extent是固定短语，意思是“很大程度上”，符合题意。类似的说法还有：to a large extent,to some extent, to an extent, to a certain extent, to that extent, to the extent of...。the, some, certain都不能与great extent搭配。
70.【解析】[b]of与名词连用,表示具有某种性质、状态，作表语。置于句首，表示强调。正常语序为：your attitude is of the utmost importance.
73.【解析】[d]in one’s belief相信。其他选项都不能与belief搭配。
74.【解析】[c]capable of doing是固定搭配，意为“能够干什么”。
77. 【解析】[d]本句主语是a book keeper or carpenter...。根据主谓一致原则，其谓语应当用单数is，而不是复数are。being, been都是分词，应该排除。
80.【解析】[b]固定短语take stock of，意为“对……估价，对……作出判断”。
82.【解析】[d]选项a、 b、 c分别是deal(处理，论述，涉及)的原形、过去分词及被动语态。根据语法和语义，此处应填将来进行时，意思是“随着书中内容的进一步深入，我们将详细论述发展和加强学习技能的具体过程。”
84.【解析】[b]固定短语to begin with，意为“首先，第一”，常用作插入语。
86.【解析】[c]本句对全文进行总结概括，与文章的第三句相呼应，of the utmost importance is your attitude故选attitude。
part Ⅵ translation
87.【答案】not so much a writer
88.【答案】play indispensable roles
89.【答案】so that it could be conducted smoothly
90.【答案】is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago
91.【答案】has a strong influence on