Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled College Students on the Job Market. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
College Students on the Job Market
Part I Writing
More and more graduates are going out of universities and entering into the society every year while the demand on the job market remains stable. The college students are facing greater and greater pressure in job-hunting.
There are many reasons behind the current phenomenon. To begin with, the economy has been confronted with depression in recent years on a global level, and it takes time for the worldwide economy to recover. What's more, there is an element of irrationality in the enrollment of the campuses. Some hot majors have enrolled too many students, and many people compete for one position after graduation, whereas the majors with little attention have few students, and more graduates are needed than the campus can supply.
The solution to this problem lies with both the government as a whole and the individual in specific. The government takes whatever measures possible to help the economy recover and to create more job opportunities for the applicants. And for the individual students, it is better to study what they are interested in and to gain experience through practice, thus better prepared for the society.
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Will Electronic Medical Records Improve Health Care?
Electronic health records (EHRs) have received a lot of attention since the Obama administration committed $19 billion in stimulus funds earlier this year to encourage hospitals and health care facilities to digitize patient data and make better use of information technology. The healthcare industry as a whole, however, has been slow to adopt information technology and integrate computer systems, raising the question of whether the push to digitize will result in information that empowers doctors to make better-informed decisions or a morass of disconnected data.
The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) knows firsthand how difficult it is to achieve the former, and how easily an EHR plan can fall into the latter. UPMC has spent five years and more than $1 billion on information technology systems to get ahead of the EHR issue. While that is more than five times as much as recent estimates say it should cost a hospital system, UPMC is a mammoth network consisting of 20 hospitals as well as 400 doctors' offices, outpatient sites and long-term care facilities employing about 50,000 people.
UPMC's early attempts to create a universal EHR system, such as its ambulatory electronic medical records rolled out between 2000 and 2005, were met with resistance as doctors, staff and other users either avoided using the new technology altogether or clung to individual, disconnected software and systems that UPMC's IT department had implemented over the years.
On the mend
Although UPMC began digitizing some of its records in 1996, the turning point in its efforts came in 2004 with the rollout of its eRecord system across the entire health care network. eRecord now contains more than 3.6 million electronic patient records, including images and CT scans, clinical laboratory information, radiology data, and a picture archival and communication system that digitizes images and makes them available on PCs. The EHR system has 29,000 users, including more than 5,000 physicians employed by or affiliated with UPMC.
If UPMC makes EHR systems look easy, don't be fooled, cautions UPMC chief medical information officer Dan Martich, who says the health care network's IT systems require a "huge, ongoing effort" to ensure that those systems can communicate with one another. One of the main reasons is that UPMC, like many other health care organizations, uses a number of different vendors for its medical and IT systems, leaving the integration largely up to the IT staff.
Since doctors typically do not want to change the way they work for the sake of a computer system, the success of an EHR program is dictated not only by the presence of the technology but also by how well the doctors are trained on, and use, the technology. Physicians need to see the benefits of using EHR systems both persistently and consistently, says Louis Baverso, chief information officer at UPMC's Magee-Women's Hospital. But these benefits might not be obvious at first, he says, adding, "What doctors see in the beginning is that they're losing their ability to work with paper documents, which has been so valuable to them up until now."
Opportunities and costs
Given the lack of EHR adoption throughout the health care world, there are a lot of opportunities to get this right (or wrong). Less than 10 percent of U.S. hospitals have adopted electronic medical records even in the most basic way, according to a study authored by Ashish Jha, associate professor of health policy and management at Harvard School of Public Health. Only 1.5 percent have adopted a comprehensive system of electronic records that includes physicians' notes and orders and decision support systems that alert doctors of potential drug interactions or other problems that might result from their intended orders.
Cost is the primary factor stalling EHR systems, followed by resistance from physicians unwilling to adopt new technologies and a lack of staff with adequate IT expertise, according to Jha. He indicated that a hospital could spend from $20 million to $200 million to implement an electronic record system over several years, depending on the size of the hospital. A typical doctor's office would cost an estimated $50,000 to outfit with an EHR system.
The upside of EHR systems is more difficult to quantify. Although some estimates say that hospitals and doctor's offices could save as much as $100 million annually by moving to EHRs, the mere act of implementing the technology guarantees neither cost savings nor improvements in care, Jha said during a Harvard School of Public Health community forum on September 17. Another Harvard study of hospital computerization likewise determined that cutting costs and improving care through health IT as it exists today is "wishful thinking". This study was led by David Himmelstein, associate professor at Harvard Medical School.
The cost of getting it wrong
The difference between the projected cost savings and the reality of the situation stems from the fact that the EHR technologies implemented to date have not been designed to save money or improve patient care, says Leonard D'Avolio, associate center director of Biomedical Informatics at the Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC). Instead, EHRs are used to document individual patients' conditions, pass this information among clinicians treating those patients, justify financial reimbursement and serve as the legal records of events.
This is because, if a health care facility has $1 million to spend, its managers are more likely to spend it on an expensive piece of lab equipment than on information technology, D'Avolio says, adding that the investment on lab equipment can be made up by charging patients access to it as a billable service. This is not the case for IT. Also, computers and networks used throughout hospitals and health care facilities are disconnected and often manufactured by different vendors without a standardized way of communicating. "Medical data is difficult to standardize because caring for patients is a complex process," he says. "We need to find some way of reaching across not just departments but entire hospitals. If you can't measure something, you can't improve it, and without access to this data, you can't measure it."
To qualify for a piece of the $19 billion being offered through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), healthcare facilities will have to justify the significance of their IT investments to ensure they are "meaningful users" of EHRs. The Department of Health and Human Services has yet to define what it considers meaningful use
Aggregating info to create knowledge
Ideally, in addition to providing doctors with basic information about their patients, databases of vital signs, images, laboratory values, medications, diseases, interventions, and patient demographic information could be mined for new knowledge, D'Avolio says. "With just a few of these databases networked together, the power to improve health care increases exponentially," D'Avolio suggested. "All that is missing is the collective realization that better health care requires access to better information—not automation of the status quo." Down the road, the addition of genomic information, environmental factors and family history to these databases will enable clinicians to begin to realize the potential of personalized medicine, he added.
1. In America, it is slow to adopt information technology because —————.
A) the funds invested by the government is not enough in the past
B) EHRs have received less attention of the public in the past
C) whether it will be useful to doctors or not is doubtful
D) UPMC knows how difficult it is to digitize the hospital
2. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) —————.
A) is the first medical center to adopt information technology
B) satisfy the requirement of the government on information technology
C) spent less money on information technology than it was estimated
D) attempted to created a universal EHR system, but met some difficulties
3. The health care network’s IT systems require a lot of effort to ensure it can communicate with one another mainly because —————..
A) the integration among different system is largely up to the IT staff
B) UPMC is like many other health care organizations in the United States
C) UPMC makes EHR systems look easy
D) UMPC began digitizing some of its records in 1996
4. The success of the EHR program is decided by —————..
A) the fact whether the information technology is available or not
B) the fact how well the doctors are trained to use the information technology
C) not only the presence of the technology but the doctor’s training on technology
D) the fact whether physicians can see the benefits of using EHR systems
5. The most important reason of most hospitals being reluctant to adopt EHR system is that —————.
A) the cost is too high for the hospital to afford
B) physicians are unwilling to adopt it
C) there is a lack of staff with adequate IT expertise
D) doctor worry about its negative influence on patients
6. According to the study led by David Himmelstein through health IT —————.
A) it is possible to cut the costs of the hospital
B) it is possible to improve the health care
C) it ensure neither cost saving nor improvement in care
D) it could save as much as $100 million annually
7. The hospital’s managers prefer to —————.
A) spend money on an expensive piece of equipment than on information technology
B) charge patients access to the information technology as a billable service
C) purchase the information technology to improve the health care of the hospital
D) invest more money on the training of the physicians to charge patients more money
8. Jha said the mere act of implementing the technology guarantees ______________________.
9. D'Avolio says the investment on lab equipment can be made up by_____________________.
10. Databases of vital signs, images, laboratory values, medications, diseases, interventions, and patient demographic information could be ____________________.
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
消防队无意之中淹没了Mad Gab's的总部，Mad Gab's是Gabrielle Melchionda二十多年前建立的美容公司。尽管Melchionda知道，保险公司会替她换掉损坏的桌椅、电脑以及唇膏架子，但她仍泪流满面。然而，让她吃惊的是，随后几个月，才是真正的痛苦，她一直亏欠工资和租金，销售额慢的像涓涓细流。
【7】公共调解员George Von York说，“这是场赌博”。他帮助业主和保险公司谈判，以期获得更多赔偿。“大部分人一辈子也没有得到实在的赔偿。但是，孩子，在你需要时，最好还是有保险。”
1. 答案 A
解析：考题考查在特定的情况下，投保人应该如何做。考生可根据题干中“如果你的运作有很大风险”，将答案定位在第一个小标题picking an agent的最后两段，文章讲到，此时你需要雇风险咨询师，所以选项C是正确答案。
解析：考题问到，州法律要求的保险是什么?第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第三段中讲“员工赔偿保险是州法律要求”，所以选项A是正确答案。
解析：根据题干中的“worker's compensation”，考生可继续锁定第二个小标题下的第三段，原文中讲“Rates vary widely by industry and occupation”，其中vary意为“不同，变动”，和选项D中的be different同义。
解析：根据题干中的人名George Von York，考生可锁定文章的最后一段，George Von York认为保险就是一场赌博，一辈子可能用不到，可是又不能没有，如果有可能，你还是需要买保险。从中可以看出George Von York的态度，他是建议人们买保险的，而选项C是个干扰项，他并不是向投保人收费很高，而是帮助投保人获得更高的索赔。
8. 答案equipment in your office
解析：根据题干，考生可找到第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第四段，它讲到财产保险涵盖的方面。
解析：根据题干，考生可锁定第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第七段，原文讲到买这种保险的条件。
10. 答案a temporary office or equipment
解析：根据题干中的business interruption insurance，考生可锁定第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第八段，文中提及“企业停顿保险”的承保内容。
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) The man didn't have much time to spend working on his essay.
B) The man was too busy to complete the assignment.
C) The man shouldn't have turned in the essay late.
D) She's sorry she couldn't help the man last week.
12. A) At the information desk.
B) In a department store.
C) In a restaurant.
D) At a railway station.
13. A) She'll go to the game later.
B) Noise disturbs her when she's reading.
C) She prefers to use headphones.
D) The man should turn off the radio.
14. A) The man should not have stayed up so late.
B) She likes to go to see new films.
C) She wants to go to a film with the man.
D) She prefers old films to new ones.
15. A) She doesn't know where the man went.
B) She doesn't know how to get to the library.
C) She can give the man directions.
D) She wants to find out where Olympic Street is.
16. A) It's a bestseller of the year.
B) She has temporarily forgotten the title.
C) The title is rather difficult to pronounce.
D) She can never recall the title of the book.
17. A) She thinks Henry is not funny enough.
B) She enjoys Henry's humor a great deal.
C) She must learn to understand Henry's humor better.
D) She doesn't appreciate Henry's humor.
18. A) He's waiting to hear from potential employers.
B) He plans to write the letters soon.
C) He missed the job application deadlines.
D) His job interviews went very well.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) On a bicycle trip.
B) Toa recycling center.
C) To a paper mill.
D) On a business trip.
20. A) Reading cards, calendars and writing paper.
B) Art books and other high-quality printed matter.
C) Insulation for basements.
D) Imitation wood.
21. A) The quality of paper will improve.
B) Paper prices will go down.
C) Garbage dumps will decrease in size.
D) Trees will be saved.
22. A) Husband and wife.
B) Mother and son.
C) Teacher and student.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. A) The man's brother.
B) The man's roommate.
C) A neighbor.
D) A photographer.
24. A) He's noisy.
B) He's messy.
C) He has too many boxes.
D) He goes to class alone.
25. A) He worked for a radio station.
B) He lived in a dormitory.
C) He took a long trip.
D) He visited the man's family.
Part III Listening Comprehension
M: I can't believe the low mark I got on my last essay —it couldn't have been that bad.
W: Last week was so busy for you. I'm surprised you were even able to get it done on time.
Q: What does the woman imply?
W: I have a complaint to make, sir. I waited 10 minutes at the table before the waiter showed up. When I finally got served, I found it was not what I ordered.
M: I'm terribly sorry, madam. It is a bit unusually busy tonight. As a compensation, your meal will be free.
Q: Where does the conversation probably take place?
解析：根据选项，考生可判断问题是关于地点的，所以在听力过程中，考生要特别关注对话中暗示地点的词组。女士提及到“the waiter，got served，what I ordered”，男士提到“your meal will be free”，从中可以判断对话发生在饭店。
M: Does it bother you if I have the ball game on? I can use headphones if you like.
W: Actually a little peace and quiet would be nice. At least until I finish this chapter.
Q: What does the woman imply?
M: I'm exhausted! I was up till 3 a. m. watching Romeo and Juliet. It was great!
W: Oh, I missed it! You should've called me. I'll take those old classics over modern movies any time.
Q: What does the woman mean?
解析：选项是关于女士对新、老电影的看法。男士说：昨晚看《罗密欧和茱丽叶》看到凌晨三点!女士感叹自己错过了这部电影，然后用should have called的形式表示虚拟，暗示男士应该叫醒自己的，随后女士用了动词短语take A over B，表示“比起B，更喜欢A”，从中可以看出女士的态度，她更偏爱老电影。
M: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to the library?
W: Well, do you know where Olympic Street is?
Q: What does the woman's question indicate?
解析：选项是关于问路的。男士问：去图书馆怎么走啊?女士并没有直接回答男士的问题，而是问：你知道Olympic Street在哪里吗?女士暗示，如果男士知道Olympic Street，她就可以给男士指路，从而表明女士知道去图书馆的路。
M: Are you sure you can't recall the name of the book?
W: It's just on the tip of my tongue!
Q: What does the woman say about the book?
解析：根据选项，考生要注意听力对话中的书名。男士问：你确定记不起书名了吗?女士说：就在嘴边!这里on the tip of one's tongue，表示“就在嘴边，暂时想不起来”，选项B中的temporarily意为“暂时地”。
M: Henry is certainly the funniest person in class; he can always make everyone laugh.
W: I think I still have to get used to his sense of humor.
Q: What does the woman mean?
W: Well, I have my first job interview on Monday. Have you had any luck with those letters of application you sent out?
M: It's still too soon to tell. Most of the application deadlines haven't even passed yet.
Q: What can be inferred about the man?
Part V Cloze (5 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Approximately, forty percent of Americans see themselves as shy, while only 20 percent say they have never suffered from shyness at some point in their lives. Shyness occurs when a person's apprehensions are so great that they 62 his making an expected or desired social response. 63 of shyness can be as minor as 64 to make eye contact when speaking to someone, 65 as major as avoiding conversations whenever possible.
"Shy people tend to be too 66 with themselves," said Jonathan Cheek, a psychologist, who is one of those at the forefront of current research on the topic." 67 , for a smooth conversation, you need to pay attention to the other person's cues, 68 he is saying and doing. But the shy person is full of 69 about how he seems to the other person, and so he often 70 cues he should pick up. The result is an awkward lag in the conversation. Shy people need to stop focusing on 71 and switch their attention to the other person."
72 , shy people by and large have 73 social abilities than they think they do. 74 Dr. Cheek videotaped shy people talking to 75 , and then had raters (评估者) evaluate how socially skilled the people were, he found that, in the 76 of other people, the shy group had few 77 problems. But when he asked the shy people themselves 78 they had done, they were unanimous in saying that they had been social hops(失败).
"Shy people are their own 79 critics," Dr. Cheek said. 80 , he added, shy people feel they are being judged more 81 than they actually are, and overestimate how obvious their social anxiety is to others.
62. A) prevent B) inhibit C) keep D) motivate
63. A) Symptoms B) Signals C) Highlights D) Incidences
64. A) succeeding B) failing C) acting D) responding
65. A) but B) not C) or D) nor
66. A) preoccupied B) absorbed C) engaged D) indulged
67. A) However B) Then C) For example D) Instead
68. A) that B) which C) what D) how
69. A) worries B) feelings C) emotions D) indifferences
70. A) follows B) picks up C) misses D) catches
71. A) the conversation B) shyness
C) others D) themselves
72. A) Therefore B) Nevertheless
C) On the contrary D) Similarly
73. A) worse B) as good C) better D) best
74. A) When B) Since C) While D) As
75. A) themselves B) friends C) strangers D) others
76. A) name B) terms C) case D) eyes
77. A) oblivious B) obvious C) oblique D) obscure
78. A) what B) whatever C) how D) however
79. A) best B) justice C) fair D) worst
80. A) In particular B) In contrast C) In general D) In comparison
81. A) positively B) negatively C) subjectively D) objectively
解析：考生要特别注意，此句中的they指代前面的主语apprehensions，忧惧过多，就阻碍了他们的反应。选项A、B、C都有“阻碍”之意，A和C的常用搭配是prevent/keep sb. (from) doing sth.，而B的常用搭配为prohibit doing sth。D意为“鼓励，刺激”，常用搭配为motivate sb. to do sth.。
解析：本空考查动词搭配。A的搭配为be preoccupied with;而选项B、C、D则常和介词in搭配。
解析：考生要注意前后两句话的关系。Jonathan Cheek认为害羞的人太关注自身。接下来说，在交流过程中，他们太关注自身在对方眼中的形象。从中可以看出，Jonathan Cheek举了个例子来说明害羞的人对自身的关注。
解析：此空和前面的the other persons' cues并列，都做pay attention to的宾语。宾语从句中say和do缺少宾语，用what来充当。
解析：此空考查名词短语。in the name of意为“以……的名义”，terms的短语一般为in terms of，意为“就……而言，在……方面”，case一般用于in this case，表示“在这种情况下”，in the eyes of sb.表示“在……看来”。
解析：本句前后语义为，在他人看来，害羞的人并没有表现出很多问题。答案选obvious，意为“明显的”。选项A中oblivious常作表语，用在be oblivious of中，表示“忘记，不注意”，用在be oblivious to中，意为“对……不在意”;选项C中的oblique，意为“拐弯抹角的”，选项D中的obscure，表示“模糊的，艰涩难懂的。”
解析：do作为不及物动词，经常和副词连用，或者在疑问句中用在how之后，表示“进展，表现”，如：How is the business doing?(生意如何?)
解析：考生要注意对四个短语的理解。选项A中的in particular，意为“特别，尤其”;选项B中的in contrast意为“相反”;选项C中的in general意为“一般来讲”;选项D中的in comparison意为“比较起来”。这里Dr. Cheek在讨论一般情况。
PartⅥ Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
82. Only under special conditions ______________________ (才允许大一学生参加补考).
83. The new arrival was _______________ (不是别人，正是那位著名的科学家).
84. It's released that by the end of this year _____________________ (这个国家的失业率将会上升到3%左右).
85. If the whole framework of the thesis had been designed beforehand, ____________________________(就会节省很多时间和精力)
86. I was advised to be cautious ___________________ (以防他对我的工作有不良企图).
82.答案are freshmen permitted to take make-up tests
83.答案none other than the famous scientist
解析：本题是对强调的考查。none other than后面加名词，表示“恰恰是，正是”。
84.答案the rate of unemployment in that nation will have risen to about 3%
解析：首先需要注意时态的使用，by the end of this year暗示了本句需要用将来完成时态;其次，需要注意rise to和rise by的区别，rise to表示“上升到”，rise by表示“上升了”。
85.答案a great deal of time and energy would have been saved
解析：本题是对虚拟语气的考查。前半句用了had done的形式，表示对过去事实的虚拟，而主句需要用would have done的结构。同时，汉语句子没有主语，要考虑被动语态的运用。
86. 答案in case he had designs on my job
解析：首先是连词的选择，in case意为“如果，万一”，后面加一个句子。其次，动词短语have designs on sth.，意为“对…….有不良企图”。