二、应用文题型 （Applied Writing）
" "Dear" 的用法：
最常见的是用Dear + （头衔）姓或名，如：Dear Professor Chen, Dear Mr. Alan 或Dear Isabel, 也就是在Mr., Mrs, Miss, Ms, Prof., Dr. 等后只用姓，不用名字。如果关系比较亲密，可用My Dear…。
Dear Sir, Dear Sirs, Sirs, Gentlemen, Dear Madame,
Ladies or Madame, To Whom It May Concern.
" 写给政府各部门首长，如参议员、法官、大使、市长等可用Hon. （Honorable 阁下的缩写），表示尊重。
Excuse me of not writing you for such a long time.
Your letter dated the 10th inst. （instant 本月） is at hand.
I feel complimented by the kindness of your letter which arrived this morning.
Words can't express my delight of receiving your letter dated Aug. 27.
I am writing to ask if you can do me a favor.
I have the pleasure to tell you that our friend, Jim, will get married in the New Year's Day.
I am very much delighted to inform that you will get a promotion soon.
" We send you our best wishes.
" With best regards.
" Looking forward to hearing from you soon.
" Love to all you.
" Please give my best regards to your family / parents.
" All the luck in the world to you.
Sincerely,（Your Sincerely; Sincerely yours; Most sincerely）
Truly，（Yours truly; very truly yours）
All my love,
Your loving son / daughter
就书信作文而言，作文内容固然重要，但语体更是问题。英文书信大致可分为事务书信（Business Letters）和个人书信（Personal Letters）两种。前者是单位与单位或个人与单位之间来往的信件，语体比较正规（formal）；后者则是个人与个人之间的飞鸿，表达较为随便（Personal）。但有时，同一封信可以采用正式与非正式两种语体表达，这就要求考生具有明辨和变换语体的能力。会变换语体，就要掌握大量词汇和句子结构、套语，尤其是同义词的不同感情色彩以及委婉语气和祈使句的应用。一般说来，正式文多采用包含would, should, might 等情态动词的语句，而个人书信除对师长的客套外，大都可融进少量口语体的句子（如祈使句、感叹句等）。值得一提的是广义虚拟语气在书信中的应用（凡要表达客气委婉的语气或留有余地的主观愿望而使用的虚拟语气属广义用法）。广义虚拟语气涉及到若干固定句式，比如：
It would/could be fine to do …
You might as well do …
You should do…
I would （very much） like to V …
Could you ...
Would you …
I was wondering if …
I wondered if …
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus. You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:
January 12th, 2002
Dear Mr. President,
I am a student here. I write you this letter to say a few words about the dining halls in this university.
First, the food in the dining halls is not delicious enough, either too salty or too watery, especially in Dining Hall 3. Second, the prices in dining hall are very high and usually we cannot afford it. Third, the dining halls are always very crowed and we can seldom find seats if arriving there not early enough and the tables are not cleaned in time. Anyway, what is good is that the working staff in the dining halls are quite kind, friendly and patient, and they usually try their best to meet the demand of the students and teachers.
Thus I suggest enlarging the dining halls and improving the quality of foods and reducing the prices to what is acceptable to all the students.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter in reply to a friend's inquiry about applying for admission to your college or university. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:
A Letter of Reply to a Friend
December 27, 2003
When it comes to which major you should choose, I propose that you apply for the major of English. To begin with, English is the most popular language in the world, which is widely used in all fields such as teaching, translation, foreign trade and so on. What's more, it goes without saying that English majors are more likely to find a good job in the tighter and tighter job market.
In order to study at English Department, you have to meet the following requirements. In the first place, you have to spend a lot of time on it, just as the old saying goes, "Practice makes perfect". In the second place, the basic skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking are necessary, because they are the foundations for your future study. Last but not the least important, you need an intense interest in learning English since "interest is the best teacher."
As far as the preparation work is concerned, you should first of all review all the required vocabulary. In addition, you'd better spend some time on reading and writing. Only through these measures can you hope to enroll in our university.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter. Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 100 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.
A Letter to a Schoolmate
June 23, 2001
Dear Xiao Wang,
I'm very happy that you will come to Beijing and spend holidays with me. It is a long time that we haven't seen each other and I miss you very much. I have always been looking forward to your arrival.
Since you will stay in Beijing for a week, I suggest you visit some places of interests, such as the Great Wall, the Palace Museum, the Summer Palace, the Tian'An Men Square, Mount Fregrance and etc. If time permits, I can show you around some famous universities like Peking University, Tsinghua University and so on, which are worth your visit.
As the weather here is changeable, I propose you to wear more clothes in case that it is getting colder.
Come here as soon as possible and I can't wait to meet you. Wish you a safe and pleasant trip here.
一般四级考查的是短文式报告（Report in Essay Style）,这类报告通常包括三部分：引言（Introduction）, 正文（body）， 结论（conclusion）。当然，正文根据情况不同，可分为不同的段落。
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write An Eye-Witness Account of a Traffic Accident. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:
An Eye-witness Account of a Traffic Accident
Last Friday morning I was standing at the bus stop waiting for Bus No. 375. Because several lines pass by the station and it was rush hour, many people had gathered there before next bus came, some off the pavement, others on the lawn.
A bus pulled into the station at last. Before I recognized the number of the packed bus, people already thronged forward and fought their way to the door. Suddenly I heard somebody shout "Help! Help!" It was from the crowd. All the passengers looked toward the point where the sound came from. A pregnant woman was lying on the road nearby the bus door, bleeding all over. I was frightened and dazed. An ambulance came and took the woman to hospital. Buses came and went, but I just stood there, lost in thought.
Probably because time and tide wait for no man, people in modern society are always in a hurry, lest they should be left behind and even dismissed. There can never be peace of mind. Thus rises the number of traffic accident. If there were less pressure on people, there might be fewer accidents.
" 信息型演讲（informative speech）
" 劝说型演讲（persuasive speech）
" 娱悦型演讲（entertaining speech）
" 激励型演讲（stimulating speech）
" 提出话题（Presentation of the Topic）
" 论述话题（Discussion of the Topic）
" 结束话题（Conclusion of the Topic）
" 呼吁行动（Appeal to Action）
" 结尾语（Closing Remarks）
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a campaign speech in support of your election to the post of chairman of the student union. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese.
Good morning. My fellow friends, I feel very glad and excited to have the honor of being a candidate for the president of the students' union. I am a junior and come from the Foreign Language department. I think I can be qualified to work for the union as the president for the following reasons.
I joined the department students' union the moment I entered this university, and have been the president of that organization one year later. Consequently, I have accumulated rich experiences in organization activities and communicating with students. Besides, I have a belief of serving for the benefits of students and that of the university as well. Both my fellow department-mates and teachers all give me high praises due to the contributions I made during my term. More importantly, I believe I am a dynamic person full of passion for a variety of things. I am one member of the school basketball team.
If I am lucky enough to be elected the president, I will contribute great efforts to serve the interests of our school. Specifically speaking, I will organize various activities and do more exchanges with other schools to help our learning and make the life even more colorful. I sincerely hope you may give me a chance. Thank you.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction. You should write at least 120 words according to the following guidelines:
Your role: a tour guide
Your audience: a group of foreign tourists
Your introduction should include:
● some welcoming words
● the schedule for the day
● a description of the place the tourists will be visiting （e.g. a scenic spot or a historical site, etc.）
You should make the introduction interesting and the arrangements for the day clear to everybody.
A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction
Good morning, ladies and gentleman, welcome to Beijing. To begin with, I would like to introduce myself: I am the tourist guide from China Travel Service and it's great honor to stay here with all of you for a whole day. Just as the old saying goes, "It is always a pleasure to greet a friend from afar", so I hope all of you will enjoy yourselves during this trip.
The following is the schedule for the day. The first spot we are going to visit is the Great Wall, the grandest fortification in ancient China. The next sight to look around is the Ming Tombs, which are the best-preserved tombs for 13 emperors in Ming Dynasty more than one thousand years ago. In the afternoon, we will go to the Summer Palace, the royal park for Chinese ancient emperors.
Currently we are on the way to the Great Wall. Dating back to the seventh century B.C., the Great Wall was constructed by respective states for fortifying against invasion of neighboring states. By the reasons of long history and its length, it becomes one of the eight wonders in the world and represents the highest wisdom and crafts. From the top of the Great Wall, we can enjoy a magnificent view of continuous mountains, green trees and blooming wild flowers. It is no doubt that one says, "He who has never been to the Great Wall is not a true man".
Above is the introduction to our arrangement. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask me at any time.
当寄信人所买的商品或接受的服务有问题，需要某些调整，例如更换、维修、退货或退款时，就会写封投拆信给有关商家或机构。投拆信（Claim letter） 和申诉信（Complaint letter）不同的地方在于投拆信有保证书或保单之类的理赔证据为保障，故收信人要按照规定予以合理赔偿。而申诉信则视读信人是否愿意给申诉人一个交代而定。
Dear Mr. Smith,
Your printing quality is excellent, but delivery is not. We expect our printing orders to be on time. Recently, our orders have been delivered to us from two to five days later than the time promised. This practice has got to stop.
We have been maintaining a mutual rewarding relationship. We receive outstanding service coupled with creativity. For instance, with the widget promotion you helped to develop the color theme for our marketing program and we appreciated that greatly. In return for your quality work, we have given all our business to you. Now that relationship is in jeopardy because of your untimely delivery of printing orders.
We know you can meet the deadlines. Your action of getting our printing requirements to us on time is greatly appreciated.
分析：以上是Gloryfield Furniture Manufacturing Inc. 写给Smith & Steven Printing Company 的申诉信, 信中提到Smith & Steven Printing Company经常延误送货时间而给Gloryfield Furniture Manufacturing Inc.带来损失。最后，Gloryfield Furniture 希望对方以后能够准时交货。
实例 2 投诉信
Dear Customer Service Department,
Thank you for sending the above mentioned merchandise promptly. However, the merchandise No. 00712433, Model Name: Anta Sport, received on January 23rd, 2005, was found defective.
The merchandise mentioned above was fading. Based on the merchandise quality report given by your company, the sneaker is fade proof; and it is manufactured under strict quality control. Moreover, the sales agreement has clearly stated that any unsatisfactory transaction can be resolved in the way of exchanging the merchandise or refunding.
As the merchandises are the most demanded in the market and for the sake of our mutual benefit, your prompt actions are appreciated. I am looking forward to your reply.
Enclosed are copies of invoice and delivery order for your reference.
实例 3 邀请信
Dear Mr. Smith:
Your letter of Jan. 27 reached me this morning. We were very happy to know that you had readily accepted our invitation and Mrs. Smith would accompany you on this lecture tour. Arrangements will be made for her to work in the Foreign Language Department. To comply with your wish, we are making necessary preparations for you to come at the beginning of March.
We will provide you and Mrs. Smith with free housing at our university and free medical service while you are here. In addition, we will pay you 5,000 China Yuan and Mrs. Smith 3000 Yuan per month as salaries to cover your food and daily necessities. We also undertake to bear your traveling and hotel expenses to China and back.
Our teachers and graduate students particularly like to hear your views on Power Management and related subjects, but if you prefer to lecture on other topics in the area of power and electricity, they will be equally interested.
To provide you with some information about our university and our physics department in which you are to work, we enclose herewith a brochure containing a brief account of both of them and a few photos taken of our campus. Also enclosed is a draft contract. If you agree to the terms contained therein, please sign it and send it back by return mail.
My colleagues and myself are looking forward to welcoming you and Mrs. Smith on our campus.
实例 4 写给报社专栏的信件
Health more important
Wealth or health? Many would choose the former over the latter. In the past, I too would have chosen wealth, but after last winter vacation, I completely changed my view.
"Uncle Tom is suffering from cancer. Let's go to see him tomorrow." When my mother told me the bad news, I could hardly believe my ears. Uncle Tom has been a good friend to my father for years and had always been kind to me. In the morning, I often saw him wearing his jacket and doing exercises. He looked so healthy and energetic.
I continued to hope that some mistake had been made in his physical examination until I saw him lying in the hospital bed with my own eyes. He was quite different from the dynamic man in my memory.
We were aware that he must be bearing great pain, so we tried to comfort him, encouraging him to pull through. He just nodded with tears shining in his eyes. I turned back for fear that I couldn't keep back my tears.
On the way home, I was deep in thought. I asked myself: If money was everything, could it buy health? Of course not. Health is the most important of all.
Adam, Los Angels
February 15th, 2005
Dear Mr. Smith:
Congratulations on your firm's recent selection to design and print media advertisements for the Beijing Municipal Government. We learned of your success at our convention in Shanghai last month.
We have long believed that the success of individual franchises is directly linked to the healthy growth of the industry at large. We can think of no better firm to help our industry achieve wide recognition than your company.
We have followed your success in promoting other associations such as soft drinks, snack foods and recycling. Your "Dream Vision 2008" ads for the bottling industry were both inspirational and effective in raising consumer awareness, and we look for similar positive responses to this business with the Beijing Municipal Government.
Again, accept our warm congratulations on your selection. We look forward to seeing the results of the survey you conducted during our convention.
实例 2 感谢信
It was certainly grand of you and Tom to come and see me off! I know it was not easy for you to get to the airport at such an early hour, so I appreciate it all the more.
Flying over water can get dreadfully boring after the first few hours, and your book of love stories came in very handy. It was sweet and thoughtful of you to think of it.
The flight was uneventful and we arrived in Beijing on schedule time. Alice and Adam met me at the airport, and went straight to their charming little house. I know I am going to love it here.
I will write to you again, Isabel. In the meantime, my thanks to you and Tom for your much kindness to me when I studied in New York, and my love to you both, always!
I am very sorry to learn from the evening paper that a tsunami hit your city this early morning, and I just can not tell you how sorry I was to learn of your injury. Your family tells me that you are progressing nicely, and that you will be out of the hospital in about ten days. I am certainly relieved to know that!
In the next day or so you will receive a little package from me. I hope you like it, and that it will help to pass the time more pleasantly.
With every good wish for your swift recovery.
申请信（LETTERS OF APPLICATION）
申请信有两种类型：一种是对某一招聘广告所提及的职业提出申请（a response to a specific advertisement），另一种不必以招聘广告为据，是推测某种可能性而提出的申请（application on speculation）。写申请信文字讲究规范化，提供的信息要真实、简洁，语气要肯定、自信。例如，大学生在求职时，有一个不利之处在于缺乏工作经验，在表达该意思时，一般我们不用 "I don't have much experience in …"，而选择 "I am eager to get more experience in…"。后者比前者要积极很多。
申请信属于正式公函，一般包括公函的几个基本部分：信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束套语、签名。有的签名后还有外加部分，如附言（Postscript,略作P. S.）、附件（Enclosure,常略作Encl.）、副本抄送（Carbon Copy,略作cc.）。若有这些附加部分的其中一项或两项，均齐头写在左下方。
信头包括写信人自己的姓名、地址和写信的日期；信内地址包括收信人的姓名、职务和地址；称呼一般用"Dear Sir"，或者"Gentlemen"，有时偶尔也用"Dear Sir or Madam"，当然具体称呼"Dear Mr. Smith"（男性），"Dear Miss Smith"或者"Dear Mrs. Coles"和"Dear Ms. Mckay"（女性）都是可以的。公务信件的正式结束语可以是"Yours Truly"，"Yours Very Truly"，"Yours Sincerely"或者"Sincerely"等。签名必须清楚，若是打字的信件，签名要签在打字姓名的上面。
申请信的正文一般可以由几个短的段落组成。第一段写明你申请的职位或工作，说明是什么原因使你提出申请，或者你在何时何处看到的招聘广告而做出回应。第二段着重写你的教育背景、特殊技能和主要工作经历（与所附简历吻合），这些是你被录用的基本条件。第三段写明你为什么要到所申请公司或所申请单位工作的理由。这是你向往该公司的原因，文字夸张一点是可以的，但不要说谎。比方说"Your company is the only place I have ever wanted to work"就显得不明智，而说"Your company's reputation for good service to its customers and fairness to its employees has prompted me to apply"就使人听起来感到很合情理，很舒畅。第四段可以写你能应聘或面试的具体时间或其他合理要求。最后是礼节式的表态，如可以用"Thank you for considering my application"。以上所述是申请信正文结构的大致安排，当然大家也可以灵活掌握，有所变通，只要把这几层意思表达出来就行了。
实例 1 求职申请信
February 14th, 2005
Ms Alice Green, Store Manager
Building 8, Red Star Street
Dongcheng Distric, Beijing
Dear Ms Green:
You want retail clerks and managers who are accurate, enthusiastic, and experienced. You want someone who cares about customer service, who understands merchandising, and who can work with others to get the job done. When you are ready to hire a manager trainee or a clerk who is willing to work toward promotion, please consider me for the job.
Working as clerk and then as assistant department manager in a large department store has taught me how challenging a career in retailing can be. Moreover, my AA degree in retailing （including work in such courses as retailing, marketing, and business information system） will provide your store with a well-rounded associate. Most important, I can offer Carefour Dongcheng Store more than my two years' of study and field experience: You will find that I am interested in every facet of retailing, eager to take on responsibility, and willing to continue learning throughout my career. Please look over my resume to see how my skills can benefit your store.
I understand that Carefour prefers to promote its managers from within the company, and I would be pleased to start out with an entry-level position until I gain the necessary experience. Do you have any associate positions opening up soon? Could we discuss my qualifications? I will phone you early next Wednesday to see whether we can arrange a meeting at your convenience.
实例 2 留学出国申请信
Directions: Imagine you want to study in a US university for a master's degree. Your composition should include:
an introduction of yourself,
why you want to study in that university, and
You should write no less than 120 words.
To whom it may concern,
My name is Li Ming and I am now studying at Peking University and going to graduate in this July. My major in the university is chemistry and I hope to study in your university for a master's degree.
There are many reasons why I want to study in your university. Here are just some: To begin with, because your university is a world-famous one and especially good at chemistry. I know some Nobel Prize winners for Chemistry once worked in the Department of Chemistry in your university. I believe I will get an excellent education in your university. What's more, I am qualified to study in your university. I have been studying hard at Peking University, one of the best universities of China and I have all "As" in my courses. Also I am good at sports, especially basketball and football. Last but not least, I am very much interested in chemistry and plan to devote myself to the study of it. In all I think I can study well in your university.
Thank you for your consideration and I am looking forward to your reply.
" I am very interested in your advertisement for an Internet Engineer in China Daily March 8. I would like to apply for the position.
" Your advertisement for an Internet Engineer in China Daily March 8 has caught my attention. I would like to apply for this position.
" In reply to your advertisement for a Marketing Manager in Chicago Tribune January 5, I offer my service for this position.
" I will graduate in the summer of 2005 from the Department of Automatic Control, North China Electric and Power University.
" I will graduate with a Bachelor of Engineering degree from Tsinghua University in the summer of 2005.
" I will earn my B. S. degree from Beijing University in the summer of 2005.
" I hold / have a Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering.
" I have worked part time as a computer programmer for two years with the Carpenter Company.
" I have had two years' part time experience as a salesman.
" I have been in the part time employment of the Import and Export company of Shanghai for two years.
" I am well acquainted with office work / import and export businesses.
" I have a good understanding of server hardware, remote administration, and networking hardware.
" I have a working knowledge of image size, file formats, and networking hardware.
" I am highly competent and self motivated to work in a fast moving, ever changing and demanding environment.
" I have strong written and verbal communication skills.
" I am fluent in both written and spoken English.
" I have a good command of both written and spoken English.
" I am good at both written translation and oral interpretation.
" If any further material is still required for my application, please let me know at your earliest convenience.
" Should further information be required, please let me know.
" I hope you could favor me with a prompt reply.
" I am looking forward to a favorable answer.
" I would be most happy if you could favor me with an interview.
" I would appreciate your reply at your earliest convenience.
请假条A sick Leave
Suppose you are a student and are ill so you cannot attend the class today. Write a sick leave to your teacher.
Dear Prof. Kang,
I am very sorry to tell you that I cannot attend today's lecture held by you owing to the fact that I caught a bad cold last night. The doctor said that I should stay in bed for a couple of days. Thus I am compelled to ask for sick leave of two days. I shall make up for the missing classes by consulting my classmates and return to class as soon as I feel better.
Enclosed with this letter is the doctor's certificate.
A Report: Views on China's Entry into the WTO
To: Mr. Adam Smith
From: Mr. Wang Li
Subject: Views on China's Entry into the WTO
Date: January 10, 2002
As required I chose 500 subjects and asked them, through telephone, about what they thought about the recent entry of China into the WTO. Here is what I get from the survey:
For the majority of people （about 60%）, this entry into the WTO is a great success both nationally and internationally. They argue that, on one hand, it stands for the government's determination to open China further to the world. On the other hand, they also believe that the WTO needs China, for it is well known that China is quickly becoming the largest market on the surface of our planet.
A smaller group of subjects （about 30%） remain suspicious, or pessimistic of the event. They express deep concern for the future of China's state enterprises. For them, foreign competitors will destroy domestic products and make millions of workers unemployed.
This is what we can get from the survey. If you need more information, please let us know. （158 words）