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2007年12月大学英语四级写作题型分析:应用文类

二、应用文题型 (Applied Writing)
应用文的范围很广,包括书信、便条、广告、简历以及通知等诸方面。英语考试中的应用文以书信为主、兼或有报告、演讲词、导游介绍之类的要求,这一点在大学英语四级考试中屡有所见。
书 信
英文书信一般包括六个部分:
" 信头-----------------------写信人的地址和日期
" 收信人内文地址--------收信人的姓名及地址
" 称呼-----------------------对收信人的称谓语,写在内文地址以下两行
" 正文-----------------------写信人的身份及写信目的
" 结束客套语----------------信尾谦辞
" 签名
称谓(Salutation)
这儿指写信人对收信人的称谓。从左边顶格写起,自成一行,比信内地址低两行。其开头词和专有名词的第一个字母还应大写。称谓后,英国人喜用逗号,而美国人则用冒号。
" "Dear" 的用法:
最常见的是用Dear + (头衔)姓或名,如:Dear Professor Chen, Dear Mr. Alan 或Dear Isabel, 也就是在Mr., Mrs, Miss, Ms, Prof., Dr. 等后只用姓,不用名字。如果关系比较亲密,可用My Dear…。
" 给某个机构或你不认识的人写信,则按如下称呼写:
Dear Sir, Dear Sirs, Sirs, Gentlemen, Dear Madame,
Ladies or Madame, To Whom It May Concern.
" 写给政府各部门首长,如参议员、法官、大使、市长等可用Hon. (Honorable 阁下的缩写),表示尊重。

四级历年真题 四级模拟试题 英语四级听力 四级必背范文

正文(Body)
正文是书信的主要部分。通常在低于称呼一行处写起,每段开头要向后缩进五到八个字母。正文从内容结构上一般包括:
" 写信人的身份及写信目的------------位于开头部分,一般是寒暄或点明写信的目的;要写得贴切、热情、恰如其分。
" 写信人的想法,请求等细节--------位于中间部分,叙述一封信的主要内容,要求写得具体明了,直截了当
" 向收信人表示谢意、希望等---------位于结尾部分,通常写一些表示祝愿、问候、感谢等结束敬语或希望之类的话语。

下面是一些写信时的常用表达:
开头语常用表达:
" 寒暄或关于"接到你的某月某日的信"
Excuse me of not writing you for such a long time.
Your letter dated the 10th inst. (instant 本月) is at hand.
I feel complimented by the kindness of your letter which arrived this morning.
Words can't express my delight of receiving your letter dated Aug. 27.
" 点明目的,表示通知、消息。
I am writing to ask if you can do me a favor.
I have the pleasure to tell you that our friend, Jim, will get married in the New Year's Day.
I am very much delighted to inform that you will get a promotion soon.
结尾语常用表达:
" We send you our best wishes.
" With best regards.
" Looking forward to hearing from you soon.
" Love to all you.
" Please give my best regards to your family / parents.
" All the luck in the world to you.
结尾谦辞(Complementary Close)。
结尾谦辞指写信人对收信人的谦辞称,写在正文下第二、三行处,从信纸中间稍向右处或齐头左顶格写起,第一字母大写,末尾加逗号。结尾谦辞根据通信人之间关系的亲疏恰当选择。常见的有以下几种:
" 通常使用:
Sincerely,(Your Sincerely; Sincerely yours; Most sincerely)
Truly,(Yours truly; very truly yours)
" 给上级、长辈、领导或公务信件用:
Respectively yours,
Faithfully yours,
" 一般同事或熟人之间用:
Yours ever,
Your friend,
Cordially yours,
" 写出亲属或关系非常亲密的是:
With love,
Love,
All my love,
Forever yours
Yours affectionately,
Your loving son / daughter
书信作文的语体问题
就书信作文而言,作文内容固然重要,但语体更是问题。英文书信大致可分为事务书信(Business Letters)和个人书信(Personal Letters)两种。前者是单位与单位或个人与单位之间来往的信件,语体比较正规(formal);后者则是个人与个人之间的飞鸿,表达较为随便(Personal)。但有时,同一封信可以采用正式与非正式两种语体表达,这就要求考生具有明辨和变换语体的能力。会变换语体,就要掌握大量词汇和句子结构、套语,尤其是同义词的不同感情色彩以及委婉语气和祈使句的应用。一般说来,正式文多采用包含would, should, might 等情态动词的语句,而个人书信除对师长的客套外,大都可融进少量口语体的句子(如祈使句、感叹句等)。值得一提的是广义虚拟语气在书信中的应用(凡要表达客气委婉的语气或留有余地的主观愿望而使用的虚拟语气属广义用法)。广义虚拟语气涉及到若干固定句式,比如:
陈述看法
I believed/thought/guessed/supposed/…that+表述内容(用过去时代替现在时是客气委婉的表示。)
提出劝告、建议
It would/could be fine to do …
You might as well do …
You should do…
提出请求、询问意向
I would (very much) like to V …
Could you ...
Would you …
表明意向
I was wondering if …
I wondered if …
以上句式在正式或比较正式的书信中是常见的,应学会使用。

实例1----2002年1月真题
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus. You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:
假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

Model Composition
January 12th, 2002
Dear Mr. President,
I am a student here. I write you this letter to say a few words about the dining halls in this university.
First, the food in the dining halls is not delicious enough, either too salty or too watery, especially in Dining Hall 3. Second, the prices in dining hall are very high and usually we cannot afford it. Third, the dining halls are always very crowed and we can seldom find seats if arriving there not early enough and the tables are not cleaned in time. Anyway, what is good is that the working staff in the dining halls are quite kind, friendly and patient, and they usually try their best to meet the demand of the students and teachers.
Thus I suggest enlarging the dining halls and improving the quality of foods and reducing the prices to what is acceptable to all the students.
Best wishes.
Yours sincerely,
Li Ming
实例2----2003年12月真题
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter in reply to a friend's inquiry about applying for admission to your college or university. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:
建议报考的专业及理由
报考该专业的基本条件
应当如何备考

Model Composition
A Letter of Reply to a Friend
December 27, 2003
Dear
When it comes to which major you should choose, I propose that you apply for the major of English. To begin with, English is the most popular language in the world, which is widely used in all fields such as teaching, translation, foreign trade and so on. What's more, it goes without saying that English majors are more likely to find a good job in the tighter and tighter job market.
In order to study at English Department, you have to meet the following requirements. In the first place, you have to spend a lot of time on it, just as the old saying goes, "Practice makes perfect". In the second place, the basic skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking are necessary, because they are the foundations for your future study. Last but not the least important, you need an intense interest in learning English since "interest is the best teacher."
As far as the preparation work is concerned, you should first of all review all the required vocabulary. In addition, you'd better spend some time on reading and writing. Only through these measures can you hope to enroll in our university.
Yours

实例3----2001年6月真题
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter. Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 100 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.
表示欢迎
提出过度假安排的建议
提醒应注意的事项

Model Composition
A Letter to a Schoolmate
June 23, 2001
Dear Xiao Wang,
I'm very happy that you will come to Beijing and spend holidays with me. It is a long time that we haven't seen each other and I miss you very much. I have always been looking forward to your arrival.
Since you will stay in Beijing for a week, I suggest you visit some places of interests, such as the Great Wall, the Palace Museum, the Summer Palace, the Tian'An Men Square, Mount Fregrance and etc. If time permits, I can show you around some famous universities like Peking University, Tsinghua University and so on, which are worth your visit.
As the weather here is changeable, I propose you to wear more clothes in case that it is getting colder.
Come here as soon as possible and I can't wait to meet you. Wish you a safe and pleasant trip here.
Yours,

报告写作
报告(report)是指向某人、某公司或政府机关通报值得注意的一些事实的文件,报告有很多种,这里我们主要集中看看大学生或毕业生所马上面临的部分。在编写报告时,要注意下列事项:
" 弄清楚为谁写这份报告,为什么写
" 尽量用简洁的语言
" 要有特色
" 报告写完后,对主要观点要有总结
一般四级考查的是短文式报告(Report in Essay Style),这类报告通常包括三部分:引言(Introduction), 正文(body), 结论(conclusion)。当然,正文根据情况不同,可分为不同的段落。
实例----2003年6月真题
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write An Eye-Witness Account of a Traffic Accident. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:
假设你在某日某时某地目击一起车祸,就此写一份见证书。见证书须包括以下几点:
车祸发生的时间及地点
你所见到的车祸情况
你对车祸原因的分析

Model Composition
An Eye-witness Account of a Traffic Accident
Last Friday morning I was standing at the bus stop waiting for Bus No. 375. Because several lines pass by the station and it was rush hour, many people had gathered there before next bus came, some off the pavement, others on the lawn.
A bus pulled into the station at last. Before I recognized the number of the packed bus, people already thronged forward and fought their way to the door. Suddenly I heard somebody shout "Help! Help!" It was from the crowd. All the passengers looked toward the point where the sound came from. A pregnant woman was lying on the road nearby the bus door, bleeding all over. I was frightened and dazed. An ambulance came and took the woman to hospital. Buses came and went, but I just stood there, lost in thought.
Probably because time and tide wait for no man, people in modern society are always in a hurry, lest they should be left behind and even dismissed. There can never be peace of mind. Thus rises the number of traffic accident. If there were less pressure on people, there might be fewer accidents.

公众演讲稿
下面我们看一下公众演讲。大体来说,公众演讲可分为四类:
" 信息型演讲(informative speech)
" 劝说型演讲(persuasive speech)
" 娱悦型演讲(entertaining speech)
" 激励型演讲(stimulating speech)
一般来说,演讲包括六个部分:
" 问候语(Greetings)
" 提出话题(Presentation of the Topic)
" 论述话题(Discussion of the Topic)
" 结束话题(Conclusion of the Topic)
" 呼吁行动(Appeal to Action)
" 结尾语(Closing Remarks)
当然虽然一个演讲包括以上六部分,但未必是六段,在四级考试中,可以把问候语、提出话题合为一段,论述话题一段或两段,而把结束话题、呼吁行动以及结尾语融在一起为一段。
实例----2005年1月真题
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a campaign speech in support of your election to the post of chairman of the student union. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese.
1 你认为自己具备是什么条件(能力,性格,爱好)可以胜任学生会主席工作,
2 如果当选你将会为本校同学做什么?

Model Composition
Good morning. My fellow friends, I feel very glad and excited to have the honor of being a candidate for the president of the students' union. I am a junior and come from the Foreign Language department. I think I can be qualified to work for the union as the president for the following reasons.
I joined the department students' union the moment I entered this university, and have been the president of that organization one year later. Consequently, I have accumulated rich experiences in organization activities and communicating with students. Besides, I have a belief of serving for the benefits of students and that of the university as well. Both my fellow department-mates and teachers all give me high praises due to the contributions I made during my term. More importantly, I believe I am a dynamic person full of passion for a variety of things. I am one member of the school basketball team.
If I am lucky enough to be elected the president, I will contribute great efforts to serve the interests of our school. Specifically speaking, I will organize various activities and do more exchanges with other schools to help our learning and make the life even more colorful. I sincerely hope you may give me a chance. Thank you.

导游解说词
当今世界旅游事业蓬勃发展,旅游业已成为各国重要的经济部门。为了招揽游客,导游解说和旅游指南就显得十分必要,大学英语考试中有关旅游的题目也是很多。导游解说除了开头结尾的客套话,中间则是对景点的介绍,而旅游指南里面大部分也是对景点大介绍。导游解说词和旅游指南的语言既具有广告宣传文字的特点,也具有某些报导文字和游记文字的特色。其语言既比较规范,又具有大众化,辞令明快优美,富于表现力和说明力,向旅游者介绍某个地方的特色,提供游览的信息,帮助游人了解和欣赏要游览的地方,有时还告诉游客诸如交通、食宿、花费、时间表等出外旅游常见问题。

大家看下面的实例,体会一下导游解说词和旅游指南的写作特点:
实例----2004年6月真题
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction. You should write at least 120 words according to the following guidelines:
Your role: a tour guide
Your audience: a group of foreign tourists
Your introduction should include:
● some welcoming words
● the schedule for the day
● a description of the place the tourists will be visiting (e.g. a scenic spot or a historical site, etc.)
You should make the introduction interesting and the arrangements for the day clear to everybody.

Model Composition
A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction
Good morning, ladies and gentleman, welcome to Beijing. To begin with, I would like to introduce myself: I am the tourist guide from China Travel Service and it's great honor to stay here with all of you for a whole day. Just as the old saying goes, "It is always a pleasure to greet a friend from afar", so I hope all of you will enjoy yourselves during this trip.
The following is the schedule for the day. The first spot we are going to visit is the Great Wall, the grandest fortification in ancient China. The next sight to look around is the Ming Tombs, which are the best-preserved tombs for 13 emperors in Ming Dynasty more than one thousand years ago. In the afternoon, we will go to the Summer Palace, the royal park for Chinese ancient emperors.
Currently we are on the way to the Great Wall. Dating back to the seventh century B.C., the Great Wall was constructed by respective states for fortifying against invasion of neighboring states. By the reasons of long history and its length, it becomes one of the eight wonders in the world and represents the highest wisdom and crafts. From the top of the Great Wall, we can enjoy a magnificent view of continuous mountains, green trees and blooming wild flowers. It is no doubt that one says, "He who has never been to the Great Wall is not a true man".
Above is the introduction to our arrangement. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask me at any time.

申诉信、投诉信、邀请信和给报社专栏信
当交易过程中出现问题时,客户就会写封申诉信给有关的商家或机构要求弥补或赔偿。写申诉信时,应把问题讲清楚,而不要讽刺挖苦,应保持理性、温和、有礼的态度,有理有节。对有关人或部门要做正面评价,注重礼貌。
在写申述信时,要注意下列事项:
先简要清楚介绍交易背景,如交易时间、地点、商品名称、尺寸和颜色或服务项目,以及交易当事人。
详尽解释申诉信的目的,包括交易过程中的出现的问题以及自己的不满。所用语言应该理性、自然、温和、有礼。
最后,提出自己的补救方法。
当寄信人所买的商品或接受的服务有问题,需要某些调整,例如更换、维修、退货或退款时,就会写封投拆信给有关商家或机构。投拆信(Claim letter) 和申诉信(Complaint letter)不同的地方在于投拆信有保证书或保单之类的理赔证据为保障,故收信人要按照规定予以合理赔偿。而申诉信则视读信人是否愿意给申诉人一个交代而定。
邀请信在四级往年题目里曾经考过,其特点是要热情,一般分为两部分内容:一是写明什么事、在什么时间、什么地点邀请人出席;二是为什么邀约对方以及一些期待、盼望之类的话。写作时应注意以下几点:
时间、地点要具体
写明原因和目的
习俗礼节要注意
格式称呼要讲究
很多报刊设立专栏,为生活中的一些问题提供建议和解决办法。人们可以向某专栏作家求助,也可以就某个问题发表自己的看法。在写专栏文章时,口语文体稍多一点,就如同和某个人对话。在文体方面,也可以多些变化。当然写专栏文章,称呼是确定的,即Dear Editor。

大家看下面的实例,体会这几种信件的写法:
实例1 申诉信

Model Composition
Dear Mr. Smith,
Your printing quality is excellent, but delivery is not. We expect our printing orders to be on time. Recently, our orders have been delivered to us from two to five days later than the time promised. This practice has got to stop.
We have been maintaining a mutual rewarding relationship. We receive outstanding service coupled with creativity. For instance, with the widget promotion you helped to develop the color theme for our marketing program and we appreciated that greatly. In return for your quality work, we have given all our business to you. Now that relationship is in jeopardy because of your untimely delivery of printing orders.
We know you can meet the deadlines. Your action of getting our printing requirements to us on time is greatly appreciated.
Sincerely,
Li Ming
分析:以上是Gloryfield Furniture Manufacturing Inc. 写给Smith & Steven Printing Company 的申诉信, 信中提到Smith & Steven Printing Company经常延误送货时间而给Gloryfield Furniture Manufacturing Inc.带来损失。最后,Gloryfield Furniture 希望对方以后能够准时交货。

实例 2 投诉信
Model Composition
Dear Customer Service Department,
Thank you for sending the above mentioned merchandise promptly. However, the merchandise No. 00712433, Model Name: Anta Sport, received on January 23rd, 2005, was found defective.
The merchandise mentioned above was fading. Based on the merchandise quality report given by your company, the sneaker is fade proof; and it is manufactured under strict quality control. Moreover, the sales agreement has clearly stated that any unsatisfactory transaction can be resolved in the way of exchanging the merchandise or refunding.
As the merchandises are the most demanded in the market and for the sake of our mutual benefit, your prompt actions are appreciated. I am looking forward to your reply.
Enclosed are copies of invoice and delivery order for your reference.
Yours truly,
Li Ming
分析:这是顾客向客户服务部投诉的一封信。第一段清楚说明了有问题的商品的型号,交易时间。第二段提出解决问题的办法和依据,要么更换,要么退钱。第三段表达出期待,当然最后还要附上发票和其他证明依据。

实例 3 邀请信
Model Composition
Dear Mr. Smith:
Your letter of Jan. 27 reached me this morning. We were very happy to know that you had readily accepted our invitation and Mrs. Smith would accompany you on this lecture tour. Arrangements will be made for her to work in the Foreign Language Department. To comply with your wish, we are making necessary preparations for you to come at the beginning of March.
We will provide you and Mrs. Smith with free housing at our university and free medical service while you are here. In addition, we will pay you 5,000 China Yuan and Mrs. Smith 3000 Yuan per month as salaries to cover your food and daily necessities. We also undertake to bear your traveling and hotel expenses to China and back.
Our teachers and graduate students particularly like to hear your views on Power Management and related subjects, but if you prefer to lecture on other topics in the area of power and electricity, they will be equally interested.
To provide you with some information about our university and our physics department in which you are to work, we enclose herewith a brochure containing a brief account of both of them and a few photos taken of our campus. Also enclosed is a draft contract. If you agree to the terms contained therein, please sign it and send it back by return mail.
My colleagues and myself are looking forward to welcoming you and Mrs. Smith on our campus.
Sincerely Yours,
Li Ming
分析:这是一封邀请外国专家来校讲学的信件,开头感谢Smith先生答应来讲学,并满足他的一些要求,第二段则详细介绍了给予的待遇,第三段对Smith先生讲课的内容有礼貌委婉地做了限制,最后则提供了本校的详细信息,以期待专家尽快做出决定。全文礼貌,热情,事情介绍清楚明了。

实例 4 写给报社专栏的信件
Model Composition
Health more important
Dear editor:
Wealth or health? Many would choose the former over the latter. In the past, I too would have chosen wealth, but after last winter vacation, I completely changed my view.
"Uncle Tom is suffering from cancer. Let's go to see him tomorrow." When my mother told me the bad news, I could hardly believe my ears. Uncle Tom has been a good friend to my father for years and had always been kind to me. In the morning, I often saw him wearing his jacket and doing exercises. He looked so healthy and energetic.
I continued to hope that some mistake had been made in his physical examination until I saw him lying in the hospital bed with my own eyes. He was quite different from the dynamic man in my memory.
We were aware that he must be bearing great pain, so we tried to comfort him, encouraging him to pull through. He just nodded with tears shining in his eyes. I turned back for fear that I couldn't keep back my tears.
On the way home, I was deep in thought. I asked myself: If money was everything, could it buy health? Of course not. Health is the most important of all.
Adam, Los Angels

祝贺信、感谢信和慰问信
在得知亲朋好友毕业、通过考试、获得学位、获奖、晋升、结婚、生日庆典等喜讯时,应写信表示祝贺。祝贺信可长可短,但一定要写得亲切热烈,表达出喜悦和兴奋的感情。
在收到别人的礼物或接受了别人的问候、祝贺、慰问、帮助、款待和推荐之后,应写信表示感谢。感谢信没有必要写得太长,但要写得真诚、热切。
亲朋好友或同事、同学办事失败,遭遇不幸时,我们应写信表示安慰。慰问信要有真情实感,向对方表达同情之意,以乐观向上的语言减轻对方的烦恼与痛苦,并给对方以克服困难,走出困境的信心。
在四级英语考试中,这三种类型的信件可以和提纲型作文结合起来进行考查。

下面我们通过实例体会一下三类信件的写法:
实例1 祝贺信
下面是对某公司客户得到一笔不错生意的祝贺
Model Composition
February 15th, 2005
Dear Mr. Smith:
Congratulations on your firm's recent selection to design and print media advertisements for the Beijing Municipal Government. We learned of your success at our convention in Shanghai last month.
We have long believed that the success of individual franchises is directly linked to the healthy growth of the industry at large. We can think of no better firm to help our industry achieve wide recognition than your company.
We have followed your success in promoting other associations such as soft drinks, snack foods and recycling. Your "Dream Vision 2008" ads for the bottling industry were both inspirational and effective in raising consumer awareness, and we look for similar positive responses to this business with the Beijing Municipal Government.
Again, accept our warm congratulations on your selection. We look forward to seeing the results of the survey you conducted during our convention.
Sincerely yours
Leonardo Chen
分析:在第一段中,作者说明了祝贺的理由。第二段通过表示对客户以前工作的了解,使祝贺显得更具说服力。第三段再次表示祝贺之意。

实例 2 感谢信
这是一篇感谢别人送行的信件
Model Composition
Dear Isabel,
It was certainly grand of you and Tom to come and see me off! I know it was not easy for you to get to the airport at such an early hour, so I appreciate it all the more.
Flying over water can get dreadfully boring after the first few hours, and your book of love stories came in very handy. It was sweet and thoughtful of you to think of it.
The flight was uneventful and we arrived in Beijing on schedule time. Alice and Adam met me at the airport, and went straight to their charming little house. I know I am going to love it here.
I will write to you again, Isabel. In the meantime, my thanks to you and Tom for your much kindness to me when I studied in New York, and my love to you both, always!
Yours Ever,
Li Ming
分析:第一段开门见山直接表达感激之情。第二段通过提前准备好一本书以打发旅途无聊时光这一细节,使感激之情更加真挚。第三段讲抵达后的情况,报平安,以示关系亲近。最后再次表达谢意。

实例3 慰问信
下面是别人在海啸中受伤后,表示关切而写的一封慰问信
Model Composition
Dear Tom,
I am very sorry to learn from the evening paper that a tsunami hit your city this early morning, and I just can not tell you how sorry I was to learn of your injury. Your family tells me that you are progressing nicely, and that you will be out of the hospital in about ten days. I am certainly relieved to know that!
In the next day or so you will receive a little package from me. I hope you like it, and that it will help to pass the time more pleasantly.
With every good wish for your swift recovery.
Sincerely Yours,
Li Ming
分析:对于遭受自然灾害受伤的亲友,应该去信表示慰问,用语尽量中肯贴切。信中不必询问受伤或事故的前前后后,来龙去脉,应表述你听说友人受伤后的难过心情,以及希望他不久就能痊愈的祝愿。

申请信(LETTERS OF APPLICATION)
该类信件主要用于求职、求学或辞职以及其它请求,是一种十分重要的正式函件。一般来说,写申请信时要附上个人简历。申请信是一种自荐形式,申请人向某个单位或学术机构推荐自己从事某种工作或就读某个学科。在写申请信时,要注意简明扼要,突出重点,能马上引起人们注意。
申请信有两种类型:一种是对某一招聘广告所提及的职业提出申请(a response to a specific advertisement),另一种不必以招聘广告为据,是推测某种可能性而提出的申请(application on speculation)。写申请信文字讲究规范化,提供的信息要真实、简洁,语气要肯定、自信。例如,大学生在求职时,有一个不利之处在于缺乏工作经验,在表达该意思时,一般我们不用 "I don't have much experience in …",而选择 "I am eager to get more experience in…"。后者比前者要积极很多。
申请信的格式分为齐头式(full flock),混合式(block)和缩行式(semi-block)三种。从三种格式看:现时商务、政务等公务中流行的齐头式每行都自左至右顶格开始;混合式的信头、日期、结束语和签名都安排在信纸的中间偏右部位,其他部分与齐头式一样,每行都自左边顶格开始;缩行式与混合式不同的地方是信的正文每段第一行都与写普通文章的段落写法一样。应该指出的是,这三种形式都是可以接受的,没有优劣之分。但在使用时,不可混用,一旦决定采用某种格式,在同一封信中就必须保持一致,而不要中途改变。
申请信属于正式公函,一般包括公函的几个基本部分:信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束套语、签名。有的签名后还有外加部分,如附言(Postscript,略作P. S.)、附件(Enclosure,常略作Encl.)、副本抄送(Carbon Copy,略作cc.)。若有这些附加部分的其中一项或两项,均齐头写在左下方。
信头包括写信人自己的姓名、地址和写信的日期;信内地址包括收信人的姓名、职务和地址;称呼一般用"Dear Sir",或者"Gentlemen",有时偶尔也用"Dear Sir or Madam",当然具体称呼"Dear Mr. Smith"(男性),"Dear Miss Smith"或者"Dear Mrs. Coles"和"Dear Ms. Mckay"(女性)都是可以的。公务信件的正式结束语可以是"Yours Truly","Yours Very Truly","Yours Sincerely"或者"Sincerely"等。签名必须清楚,若是打字的信件,签名要签在打字姓名的上面。
申请信的正文一般可以由几个短的段落组成。第一段写明你申请的职位或工作,说明是什么原因使你提出申请,或者你在何时何处看到的招聘广告而做出回应。第二段着重写你的教育背景、特殊技能和主要工作经历(与所附简历吻合),这些是你被录用的基本条件。第三段写明你为什么要到所申请公司或所申请单位工作的理由。这是你向往该公司的原因,文字夸张一点是可以的,但不要说谎。比方说"Your company is the only place I have ever wanted to work"就显得不明智,而说"Your company's reputation for good service to its customers and fairness to its employees has prompted me to apply"就使人听起来感到很合情理,很舒畅。第四段可以写你能应聘或面试的具体时间或其他合理要求。最后是礼节式的表态,如可以用"Thank you for considering my application"。以上所述是申请信正文结构的大致安排,当然大家也可以灵活掌握,有所变通,只要把这几层意思表达出来就行了。

大家看下面的实例,体会申请信的写作特点。
实例 1 求职申请信
Model Composition
February 14th, 2005
Ms Alice Green, Store Manager
Carefour
Building 8, Red Star Street
Dongcheng Distric, Beijing
Dear Ms Green:
You want retail clerks and managers who are accurate, enthusiastic, and experienced. You want someone who cares about customer service, who understands merchandising, and who can work with others to get the job done. When you are ready to hire a manager trainee or a clerk who is willing to work toward promotion, please consider me for the job.
Working as clerk and then as assistant department manager in a large department store has taught me how challenging a career in retailing can be. Moreover, my AA degree in retailing (including work in such courses as retailing, marketing, and business information system) will provide your store with a well-rounded associate. Most important, I can offer Carefour Dongcheng Store more than my two years' of study and field experience: You will find that I am interested in every facet of retailing, eager to take on responsibility, and willing to continue learning throughout my career. Please look over my resume to see how my skills can benefit your store.
I understand that Carefour prefers to promote its managers from within the company, and I would be pleased to start out with an entry-level position until I gain the necessary experience. Do you have any associate positions opening up soon? Could we discuss my qualifications? I will phone you early next Wednesday to see whether we can arrange a meeting at your convenience.
Sincerely yours,
Adam Smith
Enclosure
分析:在第一段中,申请人通过对所申请职位的描述与自己的条件,迅速地引起收件人的注意。第二段中申请人点明了自己的个人素质与技能,这些在简历里难以展示,使收件人对申请人有更清楚的了解。第三段申请人对公司晋升政策的了解肯定会引起读者的兴趣。虽然最后一段用的是第一人称I,但文章的中心与重点还是在读者身上。
实例 2 留学出国申请信
Directions: Imagine you want to study in a US university for a master's degree. Your composition should include:
an introduction of yourself,
why you want to study in that university, and
your thanks.
You should write no less than 120 words.
Model Composition

To whom it may concern,
My name is Li Ming and I am now studying at Peking University and going to graduate in this July. My major in the university is chemistry and I hope to study in your university for a master's degree.
There are many reasons why I want to study in your university. Here are just some: To begin with, because your university is a world-famous one and especially good at chemistry. I know some Nobel Prize winners for Chemistry once worked in the Department of Chemistry in your university. I believe I will get an excellent education in your university. What's more, I am qualified to study in your university. I have been studying hard at Peking University, one of the best universities of China and I have all "As" in my courses. Also I am good at sports, especially basketball and football. Last but not least, I am very much interested in chemistry and plan to devote myself to the study of it. In all I think I can study well in your university.
Thank you for your consideration and I am looking forward to your reply.
Yours Sincerely
Li Ming

下面是在写申请信时的一些常用句型:
开门见山点明写信目的时常用:
" I am very interested in your advertisement for an Internet Engineer in China Daily March 8. I would like to apply for the position.
" Your advertisement for an Internet Engineer in China Daily March 8 has caught my attention. I would like to apply for this position.
" In reply to your advertisement for a Marketing Manager in Chicago Tribune January 5, I offer my service for this position.
介绍学历时,常用以下句型:
" I will graduate in the summer of 2005 from the Department of Automatic Control, North China Electric and Power University.
" I will graduate with a Bachelor of Engineering degree from Tsinghua University in the summer of 2005.
" I will earn my B. S. degree from Beijing University in the summer of 2005.
" I hold / have a Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering.
在介绍自己工作经验时,常用:
" I have worked part time as a computer programmer for two years with the Carpenter Company.
" I have had two years' part time experience as a salesman.
" I have been in the part time employment of the Import and Export company of Shanghai for two years.
介绍自己的工作能力时,常用以下句型:
" I am well acquainted with office work / import and export businesses.
" I have a good understanding of server hardware, remote administration, and networking hardware.
" I have a working knowledge of image size, file formats, and networking hardware.
" I am highly competent and self motivated to work in a fast moving, ever changing and demanding environment.
介绍自己的语言能力时,常用以下句型:
" I have strong written and verbal communication skills.
" I am fluent in both written and spoken English.
" I have a good command of both written and spoken English.
" I am good at both written translation and oral interpretation.
求职信结尾时常用以下句型:
" If any further material is still required for my application, please let me know at your earliest convenience.
" Should further information be required, please let me know.
" I hope you could favor me with a prompt reply.
" I am looking forward to a favorable answer.
" I would be most happy if you could favor me with an interview.
" I would appreciate your reply at your earliest convenience.

请假条A sick Leave
Suppose you are a student and are ill so you cannot attend the class today. Write a sick leave to your teacher.

Dear Prof. Kang,
I am very sorry to tell you that I cannot attend today's lecture held by you owing to the fact that I caught a bad cold last night. The doctor said that I should stay in bed for a couple of days. Thus I am compelled to ask for sick leave of two days. I shall make up for the missing classes by consulting my classmates and return to class as soon as I feel better.
Enclosed with this letter is the doctor's certificate.
Yours respectfully
Li Ming
Follow-up Exercises

Exercise 1
A Report: Views on China's Entry into the WTO
To: Mr. Adam Smith
From: Mr. Wang Li
Subject: Views on China's Entry into the WTO
Date: January 10, 2002

Model Composition
As required I chose 500 subjects and asked them, through telephone, about what they thought about the recent entry of China into the WTO. Here is what I get from the survey:
For the majority of people (about 60%), this entry into the WTO is a great success both nationally and internationally. They argue that, on one hand, it stands for the government's determination to open China further to the world. On the other hand, they also believe that the WTO needs China, for it is well known that China is quickly becoming the largest market on the surface of our planet.
A smaller group of subjects (about 30%) remain suspicious, or pessimistic of the event. They express deep concern for the future of China's state enterprises. For them, foreign competitors will destroy domestic products and make millions of workers unemployed.
This is what we can get from the survey. If you need more information, please let us know. (158 words)

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