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复旦大学名师翻译讲义之15

                                                     Unit 15
I、上次课外练习参考译文:

  器官移植医生身手不凡。他们从一人体内取出器官移植到另一人体内,让幸运的器官接受者延长寿命改善生活。可惜的是,每年还有成千上万的人却没有那么幸运,他们等不及找到合适的器官就死去了。器官移植的最大制约是,每延长一个人的生命一定要有另一个人的死亡,而且这个人必须年青健康其器官具有移植价值。这样的器官供体很少,而等待移植的人数却很多,而且越来越多。

  解除这种制约是每个器官移植医生的希望。迄今为止,制作人造器官的种种努力结果不尽人意,因为天地间万物很难仿造。于是,人们又对设法利用动物器官产生了兴趣。

  印度的医生刚宣布一条消息,他们把猪的心脏移植于人体已经取得成功。看来人们越来越迫切要求增加这种异体器官的移植。欧洲和美国正在专门培育大批的猪经遗传工程处理后用于提供器官。1996年这一课题至少发表了两篇重要报告,一篇在欧洲,一篇在美国。两篇报告一致认为异种器官移植在伦理上是可行的,并审慎地建议应准予施行。美国的食品和药物管理局已经公布了异种器官移植的管理原则草案。

  异种器官移植的伦理问题相对来说不用操心。人们为了食用和娱乐已经在杀猪了,看来杀诸为了救人一命怎么说也更容易证明是合情合理的。然而,异种器官移植科学远非如此简单。

  II、英汉翻译基本原理第五讲:有哪些常用的翻译技巧?(续)

  (二)长句翻译的操作方法:

  1、理顺原句内部关系,理出句中包含的各语义点

  【例157】 The fact that the average Englishman's home has become his workshop is partly because he is keen on working with his hands and partly because he feels, for one reason or another that he must do for himself many household jobs for which, some years ago, he would have hired professional help.

  【译文】 普通英国人的家已经成了自家的工场,一方面是因为他热衷于自己动手干,另一方面是因为出于某种原因,他觉得许多家务活必须自己干,而这些活在几年前他会雇专人来干的。

  【例158】 I wondered (1)how she would feel(2)if she learned that the Negro(3)before whom she had behaved in such an unladylike manner(4)was habitually a white man(3).

  【译文】 我心中思衬(1),在一个黑人面前表现得如此有失女士风度(4),倘若得知这个黑人其实是白人时(3),不知她作何感想(2)。

  2、将整理出的各语义点按汉语表达习惯重新排列。

  【例159】 American schools, both public and private, consist of 12 years of grades(1)-- basically 8 years of elementary school and 4 years of secondary or high school(2), although grades 7 and 8, or 7, 8 and 9 may be housed together in a middle school or junior high school(3).

  【译文】 美国的公立学校和私立学校都是由12个年级组成的(1),基本上是8年小学加4年中学(2),虽然7、8两个年级或7、8、9三个年级有可能都在初级中学里就读(3)。

  【例160】 It would take me an entire book to list(1)all of the people I have known in my life who spent the majority of their lives as single people(2), but who were the undisputed focus of a large group of friends(3)-- usually serving as problem-solvers, and widely respected and loved(4).

  【译文】 我毕生认识了许多人,他们一生中大部分时间都是单身(2),但在朋友群中却无可非议地是个核心人物(3)。他们经常帮人解决问题,广受尊敬,广受爱戴(4)。要把这些人的姓名一一列出的话,恐怕要写一本书(1)。

  【例161】 Its beginning obscured by unemployment caused by the world economic slowdown(1), the new technological unemployment(2)may emerge as the great socio-economic challenge of the end of the 20th century(3).

  【译文】 新技术出现带来的失业问题(2),尽管起初被全球性经济衰退所引起的失业现象所掩盖(1),但有可能成为20世纪末社会经济的重大难题(3)。

  【例162】 He had flown in just the day before from Georgia,(1)where he had spent his vacation(2)basking in the sun(3)after the completion of the construction job(4)he had been engaged in in the South(5).

  【译文】 他本来在南方从事一项建筑工程(5),任务完成之后(4),他就上佐治亚去度假(2),享受着阳光(3),前天才坐飞机回来(1)。

  【例163】 When the "energy crisis" first came in 1973 - 1974(1), I was living with my family in a cabin on the edge of an area(2)where deer spend the winter(3) in northern Minnesota(2), observing the deer as their behavior changed from more activity in summer and fall to less as winter progressed(4), followed by an increase again in the spring as the snow melted(5).

  【译文】 1973-1974年间第一次出现“能源危机”的时候(1),我正和家人住在明尼苏达北部一处鹿群过冬的边缘地带。我们住在一个小屋里(2)(3),观察鹿的生活习性,观察它们如何随着冬季来临从夏秋的活动频繁变得少动的(4),而到春暖雪融时,它们的活动又是如何增加起来的(5)。

  3、依照重新排列的语义点顺序用汉语逐点表达

  【例164】 Now there is in America a curious combination(1)of pride in having risen to a position where it is no longer necessary to depend on manual labor for a living(2)and genuine delight in what one is able to accomplish with one's own hands(3).

  【译文】 现在美国有一个奇怪的现象:人们一方面为地位上升不再需要靠体力劳动谋生而感到自豪,另一方面又对能够亲自动手做事而由衷地感到高兴。

  【例165】 One of the most heartwarming aspects(1)of people who are born with a facial disfigurement(2), whether minor or major(3), is the number of them(1) who do not allow it to upset their lives(4), even reaching out to help others with the same problem(5).

  【译文】 有些人生来面部就有残缺(2),残缺有大有小(3),但令人欣慰的是这些人中很多人(1)并没有因此而生活得不愉快(4),相反,他们倒去主动帮助其他有同样问题的人(5)。

  【例166】 Students in these state schools, however, as well as those in private colleges, must pay tuition(1), but the state schools are much less expensive than private ones(2), particularly for students who are residents of the state(3).

  【译文】 但是,这些州立学校的学生以及私立学院的学生都须缴纳学费(1),不过州立学校的学费比私立学校的学费便宜得多(2),对常住本州的学生来说尤为便宜(3)。

  【例167】 From the corner of my eye, I saw Phil, pale, slack-jawed, eyes wide with amazement and adoration combined. We listened to Jenny finish the sonnet, which was in its way a kind of prayer.

  【译文】 我从眼角里瞅见菲尔,他脸色苍白,半张着嘴,眼睛瞪得大大的,又是惊讶又是崇敬。我们听着詹尼念完诗,那简直就是一篇极有特色的祈祷词。

  【例168】 They went in to dinner. It was excellent, and the wine was good. Its influence presently had its effect on them. They talked not only without acrimony, but even with friendliness.

  【译文】 他们走进餐厅去吃饭。美酒加佳肴。喝着酒,吃着菜,气氛顿时起了变化。不仅没有恶言相向,言语间还十分投机。

  III、课堂练习(运用各种翻译技巧,将下列句子译成流畅通顺的汉语):

  1. I hope that the meeting will not be too long, for it will only waste time.

  2. In a nation too young to have mythic heroes, men and women must substitute.

  3. If you are retired, if you are a housewife, if you have what others might consider a humble job -- whatever it is that you do most of the day -- be proud of it.

  4. Rushing throngs, blinded by the darkness and the smoke, rushed up on a street and down the next, trampling the fallen in a crazy fruitless dash toward safely.

  5. In order to retain Chinese managers, joint ventures also must devise human resource policies that are sensitive to the ways in which Chinese employees differ from those in the West.

  6. Engels spoke with the authority and confidence, born of forty years' closest friendship and intellectual intimacy, during which he had grasped, as no other man had, the full significance of Marx's teachings.

  7. I take heart from the fact that, the enemy, which boasts that it can occupy the strategic point in a couple of hours, has not yet been able to take even the outlying regions, because of the stiff resistance that gets in the way.

  8. If you're stuck with someone and feeling tongue-tied, console yourself by remembering that the other person may be feeling as agonized as you. Summon up a burst of energy, and find something on which to compliment him or her.

  IV、课堂练习参考译文:

  1. 我希望这次会议不要开得太久,那样会浪费时间。

  2. 这样一个年青的民族不可能有神话中的英雄,于是必然有真实的男女人物来取而代之。

  3. 你已经退休也好,你是家庭妇女也好,或者你干的工作别人瞧不起也好 - 不管你整天在干什么,都要因此而自豪。

  4. 人群在黑暗和浓烟中盲目狂奔,穿街过巷,踩着倒在地上的身躯,惊惶失措地往安全的地方冲去,结果却是徒劳。

  5. 为了留住中国本地管理人员,合资企业还必须制定适应中国雇员与西方雇员之间种种差异的人力资源政策。

  6. 四十年最亲密的友谊和思想契合赋予了恩格斯说这番话的资格和信心。经过这四十年,他对马克思学说意义的了解比任何人都彻底。

  8. 敌人吹嘘能在几小时内占领战略要地,由于遭到了顽强的抵抗,甚至连外围地带也没有占领,这让我增强了信心。

  9. 倘若和别人无言以对面面相觑时,无须烦恼,切记对方或许跟你一样心里感到不好受。你要打起精神来,找些好听的话向对方说说。

  V、课外练习(将以下短文译成汉语,注意运用各种翻译技巧时译文流畅通顺):

  Watching them hop on the presidential merry-go-round again makes you wonder what makes them run. After all, they didn't have a very merry ride the last time -- but the older they get, the harder they try.

  One explanation is that presidential ambition is an addiction as powerful as sex or booze. Once they have gone through all those howling halls, with their banners and adoring supporters -- their pictures on the front page and on the evening TV news -- they dream about it in the night.

  Memory, as time goes on, is a selective thing. Somehow they forget all the agony -- the demeaning scramble for money, the vicious charges of their opponents, the unfeeling and often frivolous criticism of the press, and the endless plane and bus rides, the stumbling into bed and wondering how they can get through it all again next day.

  What they remember is not the final thump of defeat, but the might-have-beens, the fleeting glory and the accidents of politics.

  Many run for the presidency who shouldn't, and many others don't run who should. What they do or don't do usually depends on events beyond their control. But there are probably other reasons why they run or don't run, one of which is that sometimes they listen to their wives. Even in these days, when divorce is so easy and family ties are supposed to be weak, it would probably be a mistake to underestimate the influence of families on presidential politics. Many qualified and attractive candidates don't come forward simply because they put their private lives ahead of their ambitions, and don't want to put themselves and their families through the savage political process.  (285 words)

  V、课外练习参考译文:

  看着那些人跳上了总统竞选的欢乐转木马,人们不禁又要问:究竟是什么原因促使他们前来竞选的。毕竟前一次骑欢乐转木马骑得并不怎么欢乐--可是他们偏偏年龄越大,想试的劲头也越大。

  一种解释是觊觎总统宝座会让人上瘾,且瘾头之大不亚于酒色。那彩旗缤纷、众人追随、呼声雷动的大厅,那报纸头版、晚间电视新闻上的相片--他们一旦领略了这一切,就会夜里梦寐以求。

  记忆是有选择的。随着时光流逝,他们的一切苦恼总会忘却--为筹集资金不顾廉耻的你争我夺、竞选对手的恶言相向,报纸上吹毛求疵的无情批评、还有无休无止的飞机汽车来回奔波,到了晚上跌跌撞撞地一头倒在床上,还要担心第二天如何应付所有这一切的重演。

  他们记得的不是最后失败的沉重打击,而是那想入非非的憧憬,那瞬间即逝的荣耀,那难以逆料的政治机遇。

    许多本来不该前来竞选总统的人偏偏来了,而其他许多本来应该前来的却偏偏没来。他们的为与不为通常取决于他们无法控制的事态。但是,他们参与竞选与否可能还有别的原因,其中一条就是他们有时还得对夫人言听计从。即使在今天,家庭关系通常十分脆弱,离婚已成家常便饭,如果低估家庭在总统政治中的影响也许还是一种错误。许多具有充分资格和魅力的人不来参加竞选,其原因就是他们把个人生活看得重于事业的追求,不愿意让自己和家人卷入狂暴的政治风浪。

目录:
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之1
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之2
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之3
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之4
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之5
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之6
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之7
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之8
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之9
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之10
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之11
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之12
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之13
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之14
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之15

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