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复旦大学名师翻译讲义之13

                                                              Unit 13
  I、上次课外练习参考译文:

  空壳婚姻的配偶双方之间没有很强的依恋感。婚姻的维系依靠种种外界压力,包括事务原因、资产原因以及面子问题。此外,夫妻双方可能认为终止婚姻会殃及孩子,或者认为离婚就是道德败坏。

  空壳婚姻有三种类型。一种是死气沉沉的婚姻:在这种婚姻关系中夫妻俩对于配偶或婚姻缺乏激情,或者缺乏真正的兴趣。厌倦冷漠是这种婚姻的特点,但很少有激烈的争吵。第二种是争吵成习的婚姻:在这种婚姻关系中夫妻之间私下里经常争吵,在公开场合也会争吵,或者也会表面上装得和睦相处。这种婚姻关系的特点是冲突不断、关系紧张、怨恨不已。第三种是消极契合的婚姻:这种婚姻关系的双方都不幸福,但生活上满足,通常感到差强人意。双方可能有一些共同兴趣,但这种兴趣一般微不足道。这种婚姻关系通常很少发生公开的冲突。

  有多少婚姻是空壳婚姻不得而知,也许同美满婚姻一样多。空壳婚姻的家庭气氛没有什么欢声笑语。家庭成员之间对各自的问题或经历不闻不问,相互交流极少。在这样的家庭中孩子通常缺乏爱,也不愿意请朋友到家里来,因为让朋友看到父母抬杠是非常难堪的。这种婚姻的夫妻很少一起做事情,两人相伴并无乐趣。家庭成员对彼此的弱点和痛处非常清楚,而且还经常千方百计把这些东西挂在嘴边伤害对方。

  II、英汉翻译基本原理第五讲:有哪些常用的翻译技巧?(续)

  (二)合句法:

  【例124】 Towards evening, the attack of the French slackened in its fury. They had other foes besides the British to engage, or were preparing for a final onset.

  【译文】 将近傍晚,法军的攻势逐渐松懈,或许因为它们除了英国人之外还有别的交战敌人,或许正在准备发动最后的一次总攻击。

  【例125】 The remembrance rankles still in the bosoms of millions of the countrymen. They pant for an opportunity of revenging that humiliation.

  【译文】 千百万同胞们至今回想起此事依然觉得懊丧,恨不得有机会赶快报仇雪耻。

  【例126】 The coup d'etat of Thermidor was staged on July 27, 1704. Robespierre and his supporters were overthrown and the Committee of Public Safety was ended.

  【译文】 1794年7月27日的热月政变推翻了罗伯斯庇尔及其支持者,公安委员会也随之倒台。

  三、被动语态的译法:

  (一)译成汉语主动句:

  1、原文有动作执行者或其他相关成分可作译文主语时,被动句可译成主动句

  【例127】 What is little understood by the outside world is that this is a failure legislated for. It is a failure which has been carefully designed.

  【译文】 外界很少有人知道,这种无法做到的情况是立法造成的,是经过精心策划的。

  【例128】 American prisoners are permitted to receive Red Cross food parcels.

  【译文】 允许美国俘虏领取红十字会的食品包裹。

  【例129】 When (it is) seen through a telescope, the sun appears darker near the edge.

  【译文】 用望远镜看,太阳接近边缘的部分显得略暗。

  【例130】 One must admit that a good deal of discontent is reflected in those statistics.

  【译文】 必须承认,这些统计数字反映了许多不满情绪。

  【例131】 A surprising amount of one's time as a student or professional is spent reporting the results of one's research projects for presentation to teachers, managers, and clients.

  【译文】 学生或职业人士花费大量时间撰写报告,以向老师、经理或客户讲述研究项目的成果。

  2、原文动词的汉语对应动词兼有及物和不及物用法时,被动句可译作主动句

  【例132】 The old woman's body was found at the end of the alley.

  【译文】 老妇人的尸体在小巷尽头发现了。

  【例133】 In the move most of the furniture was left to the neighbors or distributed among friends.

  【译文】 搬家时大部分家具要么留给了邻居,要么分给了朋友。

  3. 运用词性转译法技巧,将英语被动语态译作汉语主动语态

  【例134】 Rather than evaluating programs in terms of how happy they make people, how satisfied those people become, programs must be evaluated in terms of the quality of the discontent they engender.

  【译文】 对于各项计划的评估,不要看其令人们高兴的程度,使人们满意的程度,而要看其引起的不满情绪属于什么性质。

  4. 转换成其他表达方式,将英语被动语态译作汉语主动语态

  【例135】 The economic freedom was provided by breaking up large concentration of power.

  【译文】 由于打破了权力的高度集中,经济获得了自由。

  【例136】 These brokers are paid commissions by the buyers and the sellers for executing the orders.

  【译文】 这些经纪人按买家和卖家的嘱咐进行交易,从中收取佣金。

  【例137】 Some are deceived into thinking that people like to store up energy, to rest and save themselves as much as possible.

  【译文】 有些人误认为人们喜欢积蓄精力,喜欢休息,喜欢尽可能褒扬自己。

  5. 重新组织原文的语句结构,将英语被动语态译作汉语主动语态

  【例138】 When the ideas of a scientist are expressed in simple mathematical form, new relationships and new channels of investigation often suggest themselves.

  【译文】 科学家在用简单的数学形式表达概念时,研究工作常常会表现出新的关系和新的途径。

  【例139】 A ten percent reduction in auto accidents has been realized by exercising a tighter control on the highway speed limit.

  【译文】 由于加强了公路车速限制,车祸事故减少了一成。

  【例140】 The behavior of a fluid flowing through a pipe is affected by a number of factors.

  【译文】 在管道中流动的液体,其性能受到多种因素的影响。

  III、课堂练习(运用各种翻译技巧,将下列句子译成流畅通顺的汉语):

  1. A group of sharks were spotted off the coast earlier this month.

  2. The famous hotel had been practically destroyed by the big fire.

  3. The sense of inferiority that he acquired in his youth has never been totally eradicated.

  4. Over the years 26 amendments have been added to the Constitution, but the basic document has not been changed.

  5. While there are literally thousands of stocks, the ones bought and sold most actively are usually listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

  6. I was feeling far from well, as a heavy cold and sore throat were reinforced by the consequences of inoculation against typhoid fever.

  7. Spare-time learners are usually the best learners. Their rate of learning is helped by the fact that they want to learn and consequently try to learn.

  8. Most people, when they are left free to fill their own time according to their own choice, are at a loss to think of anything sufficiently pleasant to be worth doing.

  IV、课堂练习参考译文:

  1. 本月的前些时候曾发现沿海有一群鲨鱼。

  2. 大火使这家著名旅馆几乎化为灰烬。

  3. 他年青时形成的自卑感一直没有完全消失。

  4. 这些年来宪法增加了26项修正案,但是其基本文件始终未变。

  5. 股票的种类数以千计,但买卖最活跃的通常是在纽约证券交易所上市的股票。

  6. 我感到很不舒服。本来就得了重感冒,嗓子又疼,加上注射了伤寒预防针,就更严重了。

  7. 利用业余时间学习的人往往学得最好,他们想学,所以努力去学,学习中进步因此就很快。

  8. 如果让人们根据自己的选择自行安排时间,大多数人会茫然不知所措,想不出什么非常开心的事情值得一做。

  V、课外练习(将以下短文译成汉语,注意运用各种翻译技巧时译文流畅通顺):

  The fact that you can look up words in a dictionary can be traced to a man named Noah Webster(诺•韦伯斯特). He produced the first dictionary of American English.

  Noah Webster was a person who loved words. He was born in West Hartford(西哈特福德), Connecticut, in 1758. Webster studied at Yale and later became a teacher and a writer.

  In 1782 Webster was teaching at an elementary school in Goshen(戈申), New York. He saw that the school-books he was using had left out something he felt was important. The books Webster had to use in his teaching came from England. These books were just fine for teaching English children. But they paid no attention to American culture. Remember, the United States had only just won its independence from England. Americans still educated their children the same way the British did. Noah Webster wanted to give his students an education that was strongly American.

  To do this, in 1783 he published a spelling book for schoolchildren. Its full title was The American Spelling Book. The spelling guide became very popular. Over the years, it sold more than a hundred million copies. Copies were still being sold during much of the 1900s.

  The spelling book gave Webster the idea for a dictionary of American word usage. Webster published his first dictionary in 1806. It was called the Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. Webster wanted this book to help set rules of American spelling. It contained only about a thousand words.

  In writing his first dictionary, Webster was preparing for something grander. In 1807 he began work on An American Dictionary of the English Language. Webster was seventy years old when he published the first edition of this important work in 1928. (289 words)

目录:
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之1
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之2
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之3
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之4
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之5
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之6
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之7
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之8
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之9
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之10
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之11
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之12
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之13
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之14
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之15
 

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