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复旦大学名师翻译讲义之12

                                                                                       Unit 12

 I、上次课外练习参考译文:

  我们很多人与自然的关系表现于我们对昆虫的态度。“哎呀!有只虫子,快踩死它!”看来,只有瓢虫和蝴蝶才得以幸免于这种讨厌所有虫子的态度。

  一切仇视和惧怕都是由于无知,我们对昆虫的敌视态度也不例外。不可否认,昆虫叮咬引起疼痛让人不好受,而且昆虫还会传播疾病;但是,如果冷静地看一看,即使害虫也非常美丽。

  我们从昆虫遗骸化石的研究中获知,昆虫在地球上已生存了将近4亿年。今天我们无论在哪里都能看到大量昆虫。在极地的雪原和高山的顶峰都发现过昆虫。

  蜜蜂、黄蜂、蚂蚁、白蚁等昆虫都有关系复杂的群落,群落中不同的成员有专门的分工:有的觅食,有的防卫,有的传种接代。工蜂的一生甚至先后分别承担几种工作:最初三周的幼蜂负责照料蜂王和峰卵,清洁蜂巢,在入口处扇动翅膀为蜂巢降温,攻击或围歼入侵者。只有在这个学习阶段期满之后,工蜂才能离开蜂巢出去采集花蜜和花粉。

  除了这种行为之外,有些蚂蚁还能用碎叶片当勺子把流质食物运回巢穴。你不禁会说昆虫是“智能动物”,并把昆虫群落与人类社会加以比较。

  有些很普通的昆虫其实非常漂亮精致,这种欣赏的乐趣唾手可得,然而人们偏偏不愿意去体验,真是令人痛心。只要拿起一个手提放大镜,片刻之间你就会发现一个充满美丽图案的新世界。

  II、英汉翻译原理第五讲:有哪些常用的翻译技巧?(续)

  (二)转译成名词:

  1、名词派生的动词

  【例106】 In Greek mythology, love is personified by the goddess Aphrodite.

  【译文】 在希腊神话中,阿佛洛狄特女神是爱的化身。

  【例107】 Bright colours and bold strokes characterize his early paintings.

  【译文】 他早期绘画的特点是色彩鲜明,笔法粗犷。

  【例108】 They are already planning to staff the management in the event the joint venture is formed.

  【译文】 他们已经在打算合资企业一旦建成后经理部门的人事安排。

  2、形容词

  【例109】 He felt responsible for her death.

  【译文】 他觉得她的死他有责任。

  【例110】 Lack of trust is very destructive in a relationship.

  【译文】 缺乏信任对人际关系的危害很大。

  (三)转译成形容词:

  【例111】 Diligence and intelligence are of considerable importance to your success.

  【译文】 勤奋和才智对于获得成功是颇为重要的。

  【例112】 I have so much work to do that a holiday for me this year is out of the question.

  【译文】 我有很多工作要做,今年休假是不可能的了。

  【例113】 It's such a nuisance that I've got to work on Saturday.

  【译文】 我星期六还得上班,真讨厌。

  【例114】 As he was a perfect stranger in the city, I hope you will give him the necessary help.

  【译文】 他对这座城市完全陌生,所以我希望你能给他必要的帮助。

  【例115】 There's no point arguing about it -- just do as you're told.

  【译文】 争论是没有意义的,叫你怎么做你就怎么做。

  (四)其它词性转译:

  【例116】 The dominant factor in the growth of the company in question throughout the years has been its success in maintaining technical superiority in product design and manufacturing techniques.

  【译文】 该公司多年来发展壮大的主要因素是一贯成功地保持了产品设计和制造工艺上的技术优势。

  【例117】 This time-lag is difficult to explain, but there are three possible reasons.

  【译文】 这种时滞现象很难解释,但可能有三个原因。

  【例118】 People would benefit greatly from a pollution-free vehicle.

  【译文】 无污染车辆会给人们带来很大的好处。

  二、分句法和合句法:

  (一)分句法:

  【例119】 He visited many places, in all of which he was received with the usual enthusiasm which attended his arduous labours.

  ×他访问了许多地方,到处受到对他的艰苦努力所一贯表示的热情欢迎。

  【译文】 他访问了许多地方,到处受到热情的欢迎。他的艰苦努力是一贯受到热请欢迎的。

  【例120】 Eventually, more as a last hope than with any real confidence in a result, a sub-committee was formed to try to reconcile differences between them.

  ×最后,对其结果并无真正信心,只是抱有最后一点希望,成立了一个小组委员会,试图调解他们之间的分歧。

  【译文】 最后成立了一个小组委员会试图调解他们之间的分歧。这只是最后一点希望,对其结果如何并非真有信心。

  【例121】 Knowledge is a comfortable and necessary retreat and shelter for us in an advanced age, and if we do not plant it while young, it will give us no shade when we grow old.

  【译文】 知识是人到老年时舒适而又必需的精神归宿。如果年轻时不种下知识之树,老年时就得不到树荫的遮蔽。

  【例122】 He has long been held in cordial contempt by his colleagues; now that contempt was no longer cordial.

  【译文】 长期以来,他的同僚们虽然看不起他,却还是对他有些亲切感;现在,除了看不起之外,亲切感已没有了。

  【例123】 The society dismisses much of accepted modern thinking about the shape of the earth as sheer nonsense.

  【译文】 该协会否定现代关于地球形状的公认看法,认为都是一派胡言。

  III、课堂练习(运用各种翻译技巧,将下列句子译成流畅通顺的汉语):

  1. When he catches a glimpse of a potential antagonist, his instinct is to win him over with charm and humor.

  2. You are free to go out and see and meet people, and therefore you have control over loneliness; you are not its prisoner.

  3. Occasionally a drizzle came down, and the intermittent flashes of lightning made us turn apprehensive glances toward the distance.

  4. Rich women for the most part keep themselves busy with innumerable trifles of whose earth-shaking importance they are firmly persuaded.

  5. I talked to him with brutal frankness.

  6. He took a house on a lease of ten years.

  7. As I know more of mankind I expect less of them, and am now ready to call a man a good man more easily than formerly.

  8. Truth is tough. It will not break, like a bubble, at a touch; nay, you may kick it about all day like a football, and it will be round and full at evening. Since Darwin, biologists have been firmly convinced that nature works without plan, pursuing no aim by the direct road of design.

  IV、课堂练习参考译文:

  1. 发现有可能反对他的人,他就本能地要以他的魅力和风趣把这个人争取过来。

  2. 你可以随意出去走走,去会会别人,所以,你不是孤独的俘虏,你是主人。

  3. 偶尔下一点毛毛雨,断断续续的闪电使得我们时不时忧虑地朝远处探望。

  4. 有钱的太太小姐们大多忙于无数鸡毛蒜皮的小事请,而且她们深信这些事情都惊天动地非常重要。

  5. 我对他讲的话,虽然逆耳,却是忠言。

  6. 他租了一栋房子,租期为十年。

  7. 随着我对人类了解越多,我的期望就越低。我现在说人家是好人比过去容易得多了。

  8. 真理是坚韧的,不会像气泡那样一触即破;不仅如此,还可以像足球一样,整天任人踢来踢去,到晚上还同样形圆气足。

  V、课外练习(将以下短文译成汉语,注意运用各种翻译技巧时译文流畅通顺):

  In empty-shell marriages the spouses feel no strong attachments to each other. Outside pressures keep the marriage together. Such outside pressures include business reasons, investment reasons and outward appearances. In addition, a couple may believe that ending the marriage would harm the children or that getting a divorce would be morally wrong.

  Three types of empty-shell marriages have been identified. In a devitalized relationship husband and wife lack excitement or any real interest in their spouse or their marriage. Boredom and apathy characterize this marriage. Yet serious arguments are rare. In a conflict-habituated relationship husband and wife frequently quarrel in private. They may also quarrel in public or put up a facade of being compatible. The relationship is characterized by constant conflict, tension, and bitterness. And in a passive-congenial relationship both partners are not happy, but are content with their lives and generally feel adequate. The partners may have some interests in common, but these interests are generally insignificant. This type of relationship generally has little overt conflict.

  The number of empty-shell marriages is unknown -- it may be as high as the number of happily married couples. The atmosphere in empty-shell marriages is without much fun or laughter. Members do not share and discuss their problems or experiences with each other. Communication is kept to a minimum. Children in such families are usually starved for love and reluctant to have friends over as they are embarrassed about having their friends see their parents interacting. The couples in these marriages engage in few activities together and display no pleasure in being in one another's company. The members are highly aware of each other's weaknesses and sensitive areas, and they manage to frequently mention these areas in order to hurt one another.    (292 words)

目录:
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之1
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之2
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之3
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之4
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之5
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之6
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之7
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之8
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之9
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之10
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之11
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之12
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之13
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之14
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之15

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