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复旦大学名师翻译讲义之8

                  Unit  8
 I、上次课外练习参考译文:

  人们始终认为美丽是值得称赞的。几乎人人都以为漂亮的人会比别人幸福健康,婚姻美满,职业高尚。个人事务咨询员会给他们提供更好的求职建议,甚至法官对漂亮的被告态度也会格外温和。然而,在主管人员中,美丽可成为一种不利因素。

  漂亮对于步步高攀想当主管的男子是一种积极因素,但对于女子却反而有害。

  人们认为英俊的男主管比外貌平平者更有诚信,认为努力和能力是他们成功的原因。

  人们以为漂亮的女主管比不漂亮者缺乏诚信,她们的成功不是由于能力,而是由于运气之类的因素。

  人们觉得所有不漂亮的女主管比漂亮的女主管更有诚信,更有能力。然而,耐人寻味的是,与一夜之间获得成功的漂亮人士相比,人们认为一夜之间获得成功的不漂亮人士更多地是由于人际关系,而不是由于能力。

  为什么会认为漂亮女子没有能力呢?人们认为,与不漂亮者相比,漂亮女子更具有女性特点,而漂亮男子则更具有男性特点。所以,漂亮女子从事女子从事的传统职业时就具有优势,而漂亮女子从事男子从事的传统职业时看来则缺乏所需的“男性”特点。

  这种情况甚至在政治界也一样。安•波门最近发表了一份关于外貌漂亮对政治候选人的影响的研究报告,她说:“当人们看待某人的唯一依据只有外貌时,她们对男子和女子的态度是不一样的。”她要求125名大学本科学生把两组照片按照漂亮的顺序进行排队,一组是男子,一组是女子。她告诉学生这些都是一些政治职位竞选人的照片,再要求她们把照片按照他们打算投票的顺序进行排队。

  结果表明,漂亮男子完全击败了漂亮女子,但被排在最漂亮之列的那几名女子一律获得的票数最少。

  II、英汉翻译原理第四讲:怎样表达译文?

  【例61】 Dawn breaking over the islands, very beautiful in a soft grey light with many clouds. There is a transparency about the light here which cannot be described or painted.

  ×拂晓已降临岛上,灰色的柔光,许多云彩,景色美极了。这里有透明的光线,它是不能描写也不能画出来的。

  【译文】 曙色中的海岛美极了,晨光熹微,彩云片片,澄彻的光影无法形容,无法描画。

  【例62】 Constant technological advances in soil conservation and livestock production will be required to keep pace with this ever-growing need.

  ×将需要水土保持与畜牧业生产不断的技术进步以适应这种日益增长的需求。

  【译文】 为了适应这种日益增长的需求,水土保持与畜牧生产的技术需要不断进步。

  一、要摆脱原文语句结构的影响:

  【例63】 Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.

  ×对历史研究方法的兴趣较少来自于把历史作为一门学科的有效性的外界挑战,而更多来自于历史学家们内部的争论。

  【译文】 人们之所以关注历史研究的方法,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学科。

  【例64】 Distance from the event should make the memories less painful.

  ×事件的久远自然会减少回忆的痛苦。

  【译文】 时过境迁,痛苦的往事自然在记忆中淡漠。

  【例65】 Perhaps, after all, there was no enigma(费解的事物,谜团)about him, except in the minds of lesser men who found it hard to conceive such tenacity of purpose.

  【译文】 也许他身上毕竟没有什么不可思议的东西。所谓不可思议,只是那些不如他的人对他那种坚韧不拔的意志感到不可思议而已。

  【例66】 It was an elderly woman, tall and shapely still, though withered by time, on whom his eyes fell when he stopped and turned.

  【译文】 他站住,转过身来,定睛一看,是个年迈妇女,个子很高,依然一副好身材,虽然受岁月折磨而显得憔悴。

  二、要避免照搬英汉词典中的释义:

  【例67】 Like my friend, I now have an alternative to complaining. When I'm bored with my life, I take my pencils out in the back yard and doodle for an hour, trying to sketch trees that look like trees.

  ×就像我的朋友一样,我现在有了一种代替抱怨的东西。当我对生活感到厌倦时,我就拿出铅笔到后院去心不在焉地乱涂一个小时,试图画出看上去像树的树木速写。

  【译文】 同有位朋友一样,我现在不再抱怨,而是去做一些别的事情。在生活中感到厌倦时,我就拿起铅笔,到后院里随便涂鸦个把小时,画画树林的速写,尽量画得看上去像是树林。

  【例68】 His irritation could not withstand the silent beauty of the night.

  ×他的烦恼经不起安静的良宵美景的感染力。

  【译文】 更深夜静,美景宜人,他的烦恼不禁烟消云散。

  【例69】 But this arms race strained the government's principles as well as its budgets.

  【译文】 但是这场军备竞赛使政府的原则无法自圆其说,也使其预算捉襟见肘。

  III、课堂练习(将下列句子译成汉语,并注意运用汉语的表达优势使译文尽量通顺流畅):

  1. She showered us with telegrams.

  2. Your comment is more bravely made than correct.

  3. The man, more dead than alive, was brought in and locked in the cellar.

  4. Civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof.

  5. There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them.

  6. It was a dry, cold hand, and the grip was severe, with more a feeling of bones in it than friendliness.

  7. Hitler's mistakes gave Roosevelt the victory: just as at Waterloo it was less Wellington who won than Napoleon who lost.

  8. If an entrepreneur was suddenly given as much money as he wanted would he stop his activities or use the money to develop new ones? History is very much on the side of the new activities.

  IV、课堂练习参考译文:

  1. 她的电报纷至沓来。

  2. 你的评论勇敢有余,正确不足。

  3. 那人被半死不活地带进地窖关了起来。

  4. 谦恭不是软弱,真诚总须凭据。

  5. 这个方案富于创造性,独出心裁,很有魄力,所以他们都很满意。

  6. 那是一只干瘪冰冷的手,紧紧的一握,只让人觉得摸到一把骨头,并没有感受到什么友情。

  7. 希特勒犯下的错误使罗斯福取得了胜利:正如在滑铁卢战场上,与其说是威灵顿赢了,不如说是拿破仑输了。

  8. 如果一名企业家突然得到他想要的那么多钱,他会停止经营活动呢,还是会用这笔钱去开拓新的经营活动?历史表明,企业家多半会去开拓新的经营活动。

  V、课外练习(将以下短文译成汉语,注意运用汉语汉语的表达优势使译文尽量通顺流畅):

  If an occupation census had been taken in the eleventh century it would probably have revealed that quite 90 percent of the people were country inhabitants who drew their livelihood from farming, herding, fishing or the forest. An air photograph taken at that time would have revealed spotted villages, linked together by unsurfaced roads and separated by expanses of forest or swamp. There were some towns, but few of them housed more than 10,000 persons. A second picture, taken in the mid-fourteenth century would show that the villages had grown more numerous and also more widespread, for Europeans had pushed their frontier outward by settling new areas. There would be more people on the roads, rivers and seas, carrying food or raw materials to towns which had increased in number, size and importance. But a photograph taken about 1450 would reveal that little further expansion had taken place during the preceding hundred years.

  Any attempt to describe the countryside during those centuries is prevented by two difficulties. In the first place, we have to examine the greater part of Europe's 3,750,000 square miles, and not merely the Mediterranean lands. In the second place, the inhabitants of that wide expanse refuse to fit into our standard pattern or to stand still.

  In 1450, most Europeans probably lived in villages, but some regions were so hilly, lacking in good soil, or heavily timbered that villages could not keep going, and settlement was that of solitary herdsmen or shepherds. Some areas had better access to market than others and were therefore more involved in commercial agriculture than in farming. Large landowners were more likely than small landlords to run their estates and especially their domains more systematically -- and also to keep those records from which we learn most of what we know about the subject. Some areas had never been quite feudalized; their farmers were more free from lordship and even from landlordship. Some regions had been recently settled, and their tenants had been offered liberal terms of tenure in order to lure them into the wilderness. Finally, there was a time element; the expansion and prosperity that characterized the period from the twelfth to the fifteenth century produced or maintained conditions which were unsuitable to the stormier days preceding or the lean ones following it.  (384 words)

目录:
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之1
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之2
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之3
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之4
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之5
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之6
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之7
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之8
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之9
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之10
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之11
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之12
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之13
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之14
复旦大学名师翻译讲义之15

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