Of Human Bondage  人性的枷锁

‘Corot only painted one thing. Why shouldn’t I?’


He was envious of everyone else’s success, and had a peculiar, personal loathing of the impressionists; for he looked upon his own failure as due to the mad fashion which had attracted the public, sale bete, to their works. The genial disdain of Michel Rollin, who called them impostors, was answered by him with vituperation, of which crapule and canaille were the least violent items; he amused himself with abuse of their private lives, and with sardonic humour, with blasphemous and obscene detail, attacked the legitimacy of their births and the purity of their conjugal relations: he used an Oriental imagery and an Oriental emphasis to accentuate his ribald scorn. Nor did he conceal his contempt for the students whose work he examined. By them he was hated and feared; the women by his brutal sarcasm he reduced often to tears, which again aroused his ridicule; and he remained at the studio, notwithstanding the protests of those who suffered too bitterly from his attacks, because there could be no doubt that he was one of the best masters in Paris. Sometimes the old model who kept the school ventured to remonstrate with him, but his expostulations quickly gave way before the violent insolence of the painter to abject apologies.

  别人的成功,无一不招他忌妒,至于那些印象派画家,他更是切齿痛恨,同他们势不两立。他把自己的失败归咎于疯狂的时尚,惯于赶时髦的公众--Sale bete--全被那些作品吸引了过去。对于印象派画家,米歇尔·罗兰还算留点情面,只是温和地唤他们一声"江湖骗子",而富瓦内却和之以连声咒骂,crapule和canaille算是最文雅的措词了。他以低毁他们的私生活为乐事,用含带讥讽的幽默口吻,骂他们是私生子,攻击他们乱伦不轨,竭尽侮慢辱骂之能事。为了使那些不堪入耳的奚落之词更带点儿辛辣味儿,他还援用了东方人的比喻手法和东方人的强凋语势。即便在检查学生们的习作时,他也毫不掩饰自己的轻蔑之意。学生们对他既恨又怕;女学生往往由于受不了他那不留情面的嘲讽而哭鼻子,结果又免不了遭他一顿奚落。尽管学生被他骂得走投无路而群起抗议,可也奈何不得,他照样在画室内执教,因为他无疑是全巴黎首屈一指的美术教师。有时,学校的主持人,也就是那个老模特儿,斗胆规劝他几句,但在这位蛮横暴烈的画家面前,那规劝之语转眼就化为卑躬屈膝的连声道歉。

It was Foinet with whom Philip first came in contact. He was already in the studio when Philip arrived. He went round from easel to easel, with Mrs. Otter, the massiere, by his side to interpret his remarks for the benefit of those who could not understand French. Fanny Price, sitting next to Philip, was working feverishly. Her face was sallow with nervousness, and every now and then she stopped to wipe her hands on her blouse; for they were hot with anxiety. Suddenly she turned to Philip with an anxious look, which she tried to hide by a sullen frown.


‘D’you think it’s good?’ she asked, nodding at her drawing.


Philip got up and looked at it. He was astounded; he felt she must have no eye at all; the thing was hopelessly out of drawing.


‘I wish I could draw half as well myself,’ he answered.


‘You can’t expect to, you’ve only just come. It’s a bit too much to expect that you should draw as well as I do. I’ve been here two years.’


Fanny Price puzzled Philip. Her conceit was stupendous. Philip had already discovered that everyone in the studio cordially disliked her; and it was no wonder, for she seemed to go out of her way to wound people.


‘I complained to Mrs. Otter about Foinet,’ she said now. ‘The last two weeks he hasn’t looked at my drawings. He spends about half an hour on Mrs. Otter because she’s the massiere. After all I pay as much as anybody else, and I suppose my money’s as good as theirs. I don’t see why I shouldn’t get as much attention as anybody else.’


She took up her charcoal again, but in a moment put it down with a groan.


‘I can’t do any more now. I’m so frightfully nervous.’


She looked at Foinet, who was coming towards them with Mrs. Otter. Mrs. Otter, meek, mediocre, and self-satisfied, wore an air of importance. Foinet sat down at the easel of an untidy little Englishwoman called Ruth Chalice. She had the fine black eyes, languid but passionate, the thin face, ascetic but sensual, the skin like old ivory, which under the influence of Burne-Jones were cultivated at that time by young ladies in Chelsea. Foinet seemed in a pleasant mood; he did not say much to her, but with quick, determined strokes of her charcoal pointed out her errors. Miss Chalice beamed with pleasure when he rose. He came to Clutton, and by this time Philip was nervous too but Mrs. Otter had promised to make things easy for him. Foinet stood for a moment in front of Clutton’s work, biting his thumb silently, then absent-mindedly spat out upon the canvas the little piece of skin which he had bitten off.


‘That’s a fine line,’ he said at last, indicating with his thumb what pleased him. ‘You’re beginning to learn to draw.’


Clutton did not answer, but looked at the master with his usual air of sardonic indifference to the world’s opinion.


‘I’m beginning to think you have at least a trace of talent.’


Mrs. Otter, who did not like Clutton, pursed her lips. She did not see anything out of the way in his work. Foinet sat down and went into technical details. Mrs. Otter grew rather tired of standing. Clutton did not say anything, but nodded now and then, and Foinet felt with satisfaction that he grasped what he said and the reasons of it; most of them listened to him, but it was clear they never understood. Then Foinet got up and came to Philip.


‘He only arrived two days ago,’ Mrs. Otter hurried to explain. ‘He’s a beginner. He’s never studied before.’


‘Ca se voit,’ the master said. ‘One sees that.’

  "Ca se voit,"画师说,"不说也看得出。"

He passed on, and Mrs. Otter murmured to him:


‘This is the young lady I told you about.’


He looked at her as though she were some repulsive animal, and his voice grew more rasping.


‘It appears that you do not think I pay enough attention to you. You have been complaining to the massiere. Well, show me this work to which you wish me to give attention.’


Fanny Price coloured. The blood under her unhealthy skin seemed to be of a strange purple. Without answering she pointed to the drawing on which she had been at work since the beginning of the week. Foinet sat down.


‘Well, what do you wish me to say to you? Do you wish me to tell you it is good? It isn’t. Do you wish me to tell you it is well drawn? It isn’t. Do you wish me to say it has merit? It hasn’t. Do you wish me to show you what is wrong with it? It is all wrong. Do you wish me to tell you what to do with it? Tear it up. Are you satisfied now?’


Miss Price became very white. She was furious because he had said all this before Mrs. Otter. Though she had been in France so long and could understand French well enough, she could hardly speak two words.


‘He’s got no right to treat me like that. My money’s as good as anyone else’s. I pay him to teach me. That’s not teaching me.’


‘What does she say? What does she say?’ asked Foinet.


Mrs. Otter hesitated to translate, and Miss Price repeated in execrable French.


‘Je vous paye pour m’apprendre.’

  "Je vons paye pour m'apprendre."

His eyes flashed with rage, he raised his voice and shook his fist.


‘Mais, nom de Dieu, I can’t teach you. I could more easily teach a camel.’ He turned to Mrs. Otter. ‘Ask her, does she do this for amusement, or does she expect to earn money by it?’

  "Maia,nom de Dieu,我教不了你。教头骆驼也比教你容易。"他转身对奥特太太说:"问问她,学画是为了消闲解闷,还是指望靠它谋生。"

‘I’m going to earn my living as an artist,’ Miss Price answered.


‘Then it is my duty to tell you that you are wasting your time. It would not matter that you have no talent, talent does not run about the streets in these days, but you have not the beginning of an aptitude. How long have you been here? A child of five after two lessons would draw better than you do. I only say one thing to you, give up this hopeless attempt. You’re more likely to earn your living as a bonne a tout faire than as a painter. Look.’

  "那么我就有责任告诉你:你是在白白浪费光阴。你缺少天赋,这倒不要紧,如今真正有天赋的人又有几个;问题是你根本没有灵性,直到现在还未开窍。你来这里有多久了?五岁小孩上了两堂课后,画得也比你现在强。我只想奉劝你一句,趁早放弃这番无谓的尝试吧。你若要谋生,恐怕当bonne a tout fatre也要比当画家稳妥些。瞧!"

He seized a piece of charcoal, and it broke as he applied it to the paper. He cursed, and with the stump drew great firm lines. He drew rapidly and spoke at the same time, spitting out the words with venom.


‘Look, those arms are not the same length. That knee, it’s grotesque. I tell you a child of five. You see, she’s not standing on her legs. That foot!’


With each word the angry pencil made a mark, and in a moment the drawing upon which Fanny Price had spent so much time and eager trouble was unrecognisable, a confusion of lines and smudges. At last he flung down the charcoal and stood up.


‘Take my advice, Mademoiselle, try dressmaking.’ He looked at his watch. ‘It’s twelve. A la semaine prochaine, messieurs.’

  "小姐,听我的忠告,还是去学点裁缝的手艺吧。"他看看自己的表。"十二点了。A la semaine prochaine,messieurs."

Miss Price gathered up her things slowly. Philip waited behind after the others to say to her something consolatory. He could think of nothing but:


‘I say, I’m awfully sorry. What a beast that man is!’


She turned on him savagely.


‘Is that what you’re waiting about for? When I want your sympathy I’ll ask for it. Please get out of my way.’


She walked past him, out of the studio, and Philip, with a shrug of the shoulders, limped along to Gravier’s for luncheon.


‘It served her right,’ said Lawson, when Philip told him what had happened. ‘Ill-tempered slut.’


Lawson was very sensitive to criticism and, in order to avoid it, never went to the studio when Foinet was coming.


‘I don’t want other people’s opinion of my work,’ he said. ‘I know myself if it’s good or bad.’


‘You mean you don’t want other people’s bad opinion of your work,’ answered Clutton dryly.


In the afternoon Philip thought he would go to the Luxembourg to see the pictures, and walking through the garden he saw Fanny Price sitting in her accustomed seat. He was sore at the rudeness with which she had met his well-meant attempt to say something pleasant, and passed as though he had not caught sight of her. But she got up at once and came towards him.


‘Are you trying to cut me?’ she said.


‘No, of course not. I thought perhaps you didn’t want to be spoken to.’


‘Where are you going?’


‘I wanted to have a look at the Manet, I’ve heard so much about it.’


‘Would you like me to come with you? I know the Luxembourg rather well. I could show you one or two good things.’


He understood that, unable to bring herself to apologise directly, she made this offer as amends.


‘It’s awfully kind of you. I should like it very much.’


‘You needn’t say yes if you’d rather go alone,’ she said suspiciously.


‘I wouldn’t.’


They walked towards the gallery. Caillebotte’s collection had lately been placed on view, and the student for the first time had the opportunity to examine at his ease the works of the impressionists. Till then it had been possible to see them only at Durand-Ruel’s shop in the Rue Lafitte (and the dealer, unlike his fellows in England, who adopt towards the painter an attitude of superiority, was always pleased to show the shabbiest student whatever he wanted to see), or at his private house, to which it was not difficult to get a card of admission on Tuesdays, and where you might see pictures of world-wide reputation. Miss Price led Philip straight up to Manet’s Olympia. He looked at it in astonished silence.


‘Do you like it?’ asked Miss Price.


‘I don’t know,’ he answered helplessly.


‘You can take it from me that it’s the best thing in the gallery except perhaps Whistler’s portrait of his mother.’


She gave him a certain time to contemplate the masterpiece and then took him to a picture representing a railway-station.


‘Look, here’s a Monet,’ she said. ‘It’s the Gare St. Lazare.’


‘But the railway lines aren’t parallel,’ said Philip.


‘What does that matter?’ she asked, with a haughty air.


Philip felt ashamed of himself. Fanny Price had picked up the glib chatter of the studios and had no difficulty in impressing Philip with the extent of her knowledge. She proceeded to explain the pictures to him, superciliously but not without insight, and showed him what the painters had attempted and what he must look for. She talked with much gesticulation of the thumb, and Philip, to whom all she said was new, listened with profound but bewildered interest. Till now he had worshipped Watts and Burne-Jones. The pretty colour of the first, the affected drawing of the second, had entirely satisfied his aesthetic sensibilities. Their vague idealism, the suspicion of a philosophical idea which underlay the titles they gave their pictures, accorded very well with the functions of art as from his diligent perusal of Ruskin he understood it; but here was something quite different: here was no moral appeal; and the contemplation of these works could help no one to lead a purer and a higher life. He was puzzled.


At last he said: ‘You know, I’m simply dead. I don’t think I can absorb anything more profitably. Let’s go and sit down on one of the benches.’


‘It’s better not to take too much art at a time,’ Miss Price answered.


When they got outside he thanked her warmly for the trouble she had taken.


‘Oh, that’s all right,’ she said, a little ungraciously. ‘I do it because I enjoy it. We’ll go to the Louvre tomorrow if you like, and then I’ll take you to Durand-Ruel’s.’


‘You’re really awfully good to me.’


‘You don’t think me such a beast as the most of them do.’


‘I don’t,’ he smiled.


‘They think they’ll drive me away from the studio; but they won’t; I shall stay there just exactly as long as it suits me. All that this morning, it was Lucy Otter’s doing, I know it was. She always has hated me. She thought after that I’d take myself off. I daresay she’d like me to go. She’s afraid I know too much about her.’


Miss Price told him a long, involved story, which made out that Mrs. Otter, a humdrum and respectable little person, had scabrous intrigues. Then she talked of Ruth Chalice, the girl whom Foinet had praised that morning.


‘She’s been with every one of the fellows at the studio. She’s nothing better than a street-walker. And she’s dirty. She hasn’t had a bath for a month. I know it for a fact.’


Philip listened uncomfortably. He had heard already that various rumours were in circulation about Miss Chalice; but it was ridiculous to suppose that Mrs. Otter, living with her mother, was anything but rigidly virtuous. The woman walking by his side with her malignant lying positively horrified him.


‘I don’t care what they say. I shall go on just the same. I know I’ve got it in me. I feel I’m an artist. I’d sooner kill myself than give it up. Oh, I shan’t be the first they’ve all laughed at in the schools and then he’s turned out the only genius of the lot. Art’s the only thing I care for, I’m willing to give my whole life to it. It’s only a question of sticking to it and pegging away"


She found discreditable motives for everyone who would not take her at her own estimate of herself. She detested Clutton. She told Philip that his friend had no talent really; it was just flashy and superficial; he couldn’t compose a figure to save his life. And Lawson:


‘Little beast, with his red hair and his freckles. He’s so afraid of Foinet that he won’t let him see his work. After all, I don’t funk it, do I? I don’t care what Foinet says to me, I know I’m a real artist.’


They reached the street in which she lived, and with a sigh of relief Philip left her.