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2007考研英语强化班授课讲义(十)

原版英语 于2007-08-23发布 l 已有人阅读

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      i. reading comprehension:


      text  1

          get ready for the second act of the grand drama we call globalization. the 1980’s opened with a massive manufacturing migration from industrialized countries to the third world that accelerates to this day. this decade is witnessing a second huge shift, this time in services, with white-collar professional jobs following the same blue-collar migratory routes to asia and elsewhere.

          we believe that the latest iteration(=repetition) in the evolution of the global economy will generate more growth for everyone over time as countries focus their abilities on doing what they do best. but the adjustment may well be painful for those middle-class americans and europeans who see their jobs in software writing, chip design, architecture, and accounting move to india, china, israel, russia, and the philippines. if the migration of services is not intervened in by good growth-promoting government policy, there is a serious risk that the anti-globalization forces will gain an army of jobless white-collar recruits.

          the dimensions of service shift are only just beginning to come into focus. we can discern the trend but not the strength or size of the move. the collapse of the tech bubble and the weak recovery are leading a growing number of u.s. bank, insurance, credit card, accounting, investment banking, high-tech, engineering, and design companies to outsource white-collar work.

          this is likely to prove to be more than just a cyclical phenomenon. the internet, digitization, the spread of white-collar skills abroad, and the big cost savings of outsourcing will probably make the shift of services a permanent feature of economic life. the good news is that flinging off of commodity-like service work will increase the profits and efficiency of american corporations and set the stage for the next big growth-generating breakthrough. innovation is the driving force of the u.s. economy, not mass production of low-value goods or services. the painful loss of manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s paved the way to the high-tech gains of the 1990s. the same forces are at work today.

          for their part, india, china, and other countries are gaining large numbers of well-paying jobs, expanding the middle class, and reducing poverty. as a result, china is emerging as a locomotive to world growth. american exports to china in november 2003 were up 30% year-over-year at an annual rate of $24 billion, matching what the u.s. exports to france.

          the u.s. must act without hesitation. it should do what it has done in the past – move up the value-added ladder to create new products and services. that means promoting better education, completing the job of reforming the capital market, and reducing business and investor risk at home and abroad. if it can restart the growth engine, the u.s. has nothing to fear from the great white-collar migration. if it doesn’t, there may be serious trouble ahead.  (468 words)

          notes: migration n. 迁移。may well 很可能。intervene in 干预。come into focus (=become clearly seen) 变得清晰、明确或对准焦点。outsource使…源源不断流出;把…外包。 fling off脱掉,甩掉,逃脱。set the stage for为…准备条件。

      1. globalization of the current decade proves to be __________.

      a. a dramatic event resulting in serious economic problems   b. a massive transfer of manual workers from west to east
      b. identical to the previous movement in scale and value      d. sending upscale jobs off the highly-developed countries

      2. the white-collar migration may lead to __________.

      a. rapid progress in manufacturing industry               b. sufferings for u.s. technical professionals
      c. great advances in information technology            d. forceful intervention by the government

      3. in consequence of the burst of the tech bubble, many companies are __________.

      a. shifting well-paying jobs to the developing countries     b. exporting well-trained and experienced workers
      c. exhausting the sources of service-job supply          d. undermining the healthy basis of employment

      4. the move of services may be beneficial to developed countries, for it __________.

      a. throws off the heavy burden of service duties          b. prevents the production of low-value goods
      c. makes conditions ready for new breakthroughs         d. drives corporations to pursue the biggest profits

      5. in order to get over the difficulties caused by service shift, __________.

      a. developed countries have to check their exports          b. the u.s. should act as it did during the last shift
      c. the middle class must receive further education
text  2

          human relations have commanded people’s attention from early times. the ways of people have been recorded in innumerable myths, folktales, novels, poems, plays, and popular or philosophical essays. although the full significance of a human relationship may not be directly evident, the complexity of feelings and actions that can be understood at a glance is surprisingly great. for this reason psychology holds a unique position among the sciences.

          “intuitive” knowledge may be remarkably penetrating and can significantly help us understand human behavior whereas in the physical sciences such commonsense knowledge is relatively primitive. if we erased all knowledge of scientific physics from our world, not only would we not have cars and television sets, we might even find that the ordinary person was unable to cope with the fundamental mechanical problems of pulleys and levers. on the other hand, if we removed all knowledge of scientific psychology from our world, problems in interpersonal relations might easily be coped with and solved much as before. we would still “know” how to avoid doing something asked of us and how to get someone to agree with us; we would still “know” when someone was angry and when someone was pleased. one could even offer sensible explanations for the “whys” of much of the self’s behavior and feelings. in other words, the ordinary person has a great and profound understanding of the self and of other people which, though unformulated or only vaguely conceived, enables one to interact with others in more or less adaptive ways. kohler in referring to the lack of great discoveries in psychology as compared with physics, accounts for this by saying that “people were acquainted with practically all territories of mental life a long time before the founding of scientific psychology.”

          paradoxically, with all this natural, intuitive, commonsense capacity to grasp human relations, the science of human relations had been one of the last to develop. different explanations of this paradox have been suggested. one is that science would destroy the vain and pleasing illusions people have about themselves; but we might ask why people have always loved to read pessimistic, debunking writings, from ecclesiastes to freud. it has also been proposed that just because we know so much about people intuitively, there has been less incentive for studying them scientifically: why should one develop a theory, carry out systematic observations, or make predictions about the obvious? in any case, the field of human relations, with its vast literary documentation but meager scientific treatment, is in great contrast to the field of physics in which there are relatively few nonscientific books.  (435 words)

      注:command vt. 博得;命令。account for 解释,说明。paradoxically反常的是。illusion 幻想。debunking暴露真相的。 ecclesiastes 圣经传道书。freud 弗洛伊德(谮意识论)。incentive刺激,激励。meager 贫乏的。scientific treatment科学阐述。

      1. the author’s statement that “psychology holds a unique position among the sciences” (line 4) is supported by the claim that ______________.

      a. the full meaning of a human relationship may not be obvious
      b. commonsense understanding of human relations can be clear and precise
      c. intuitive knowledge in the physical sciences is relatively advanced
      d. subjective bias is difficult to control in psychological research

      2. it can be inferred that when it comes to people who lived before the coming of scientific psychology, the author would most likely agree that _______________.

      a. their understanding of human relations was quite limited
      b. they were uninterested in acquiring knowledge of the physical world
      c. they misunderstood others more frequently than do people today
      d. their intuitions about human relations were reasonably sophisticated

      3. the author refers to people who are attracted to “pessimistic, debunking writing “ (line 4, the last paragraph) in order to support the idea that ______________.

      a. interesting books about human relations are typically pessimistic
      b. people tend to ignore scientific explanations of human relations
      c. people rarely hold pleasing illusions about themselves
      d. it is doubtful that the science of human relations developed slowly because of a desire to maintain pleasing illusions

      4. it can be inferred that the author assumes that commonsense knowledge of human relations is _______________.

      a. usually sufficiently accurate to facilitate interactions with others
      b. equally well developed among all adults within a given society
      c. biased insofar as it is based on myths and folktales
      d. typically unrelated to an individual’s interactions with other people

      5. according to the text, it has also been suggested that the science of human relations was slow to develop because________.

      a. intuitive knowledge of human relations is derived from philosophy
      b. early scientists were more interested in the physical world
      c. scientific studies of human relations appear to investigate the obvious
      d. the scientific method is difficult to apply to the study of human relations

 


      i. reading comprehension:

      text  1

          get ready for the second act of the grand drama we call globalization. the 1980’s opened with a massive manufacturing migration from industrialized countries to the third world that accelerates to this day. this decade is witnessing a second huge shift, this time in services, with white-collar professional jobs following the same blue-collar migratory routes to asia and elsewhere.

          we believe that the latest iteration(=repetition) in the evolution of the global economy will generate more growth for everyone over time as countries focus their abilities on doing what they do best. but the adjustment may well be painful for those middle-class americans and europeans who see their jobs in software writing, chip design, architecture, and accounting move to india, china, israel, russia, and the philippines. if the migration of services is not intervened in by good growth-promoting government policy, there is a serious risk that the anti-globalization forces will gain an army of jobless white-collar recruits.

          the dimensions of service shift are only just beginning to come into focus. we can discern the trend but not the strength or size of the move. the collapse of the tech bubble and the weak recovery are leading a growing number of u.s. bank, insurance, credit card, accounting, investment banking, high-tech, engineering, and design companies to outsource white-collar work.

          this is likely to prove to be more than just a cyclical phenomenon. the internet, digitization, the spread of white-collar skills abroad, and the big cost savings of outsourcing will probably make the shift of services a permanent feature of economic life. the good news is that flinging off of commodity-like service work will increase the profits and efficiency of american corporations and set the stage for the next big growth-generating breakthrough. innovation is the driving force of the u.s. economy, not mass production of low-value goods or services. the painful loss of manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s paved the way to the high-tech gains of the 1990s. the same forces are at work today.

          for their part, india, china, and other countries are gaining large numbers of well-paying jobs, expanding the middle class, and reducing poverty. as a result, china is emerging as a locomotive to world growth. american exports to china in november 2003 were up 30% year-over-year at an annual rate of $24 billion, matching what the u.s. exports to france.

          the u.s. must act without hesitation. it should do what it has done in the past – move up the value-added ladder to create new products and services. that means promoting better education, completing the job of reforming the capital market, and reducing business and investor risk at home and abroad. if it can restart the growth engine, the u.s. has nothing to fear from the great white-collar migration. if it doesn’t, there may be serious trouble ahead.  (468 words)

          notes: migration n. 迁移。may well 很可能。intervene in 干预。come into focus (=become clearly seen) 变得清晰、明确或对准焦点。outsource使…源源不断流出;把…外包。 fling off脱掉,甩掉,逃脱。set the stage for为…准备条件。

      1. globalization of the current decade proves to be __________.

      a. a dramatic event resulting in serious economic problems   b. a massive transfer of manual workers from west to east
      b. identical to the previous movement in scale and value      d. sending upscale jobs off the highly-developed countries

      2. the white-collar migration may lead to __________.

      a. rapid progress in manufacturing industry               b. sufferings for u.s. technical professionals
      c. great advances in information technology            d. forceful intervention by the government

      3. in consequence of the burst of the tech bubble, many companies are __________.

      a. shifting well-paying jobs to the developing countries     b. exporting well-trained and experienced workers
      c. exhausting the sources of service-job supply          d. undermining the healthy basis of employment

      4. the move of services may be beneficial to developed countries, for it __________.

      a. throws off the heavy burden of service duties          b. prevents the production of low-value goods
      c. makes conditions ready for new breakthroughs         d. drives corporations to pursue the biggest profits

      5. in order to get over the difficulties caused by service shift, __________.

      a. developed countries have to check their exports          b. the u.s. should act as it did during the last shift
      c. the middle class must receive further education

 

text  2

          human relations have commanded people’s attention from early times. the ways of people have been recorded in innumerable myths, folktales, novels, poems, plays, and popular or philosophical essays. although the full significance of a human relationship may not be directly evident, the complexity of feelings and actions that can be understood at a glance is surprisingly great. for this reason psychology holds a unique position among the sciences.

          “intuitive” knowledge may be remarkably penetrating and can significantly help us understand human behavior whereas in the physical sciences such commonsense knowledge is relatively primitive. if we erased all knowledge of scientific physics from our world, not only would we not have cars and television sets, we might even find that the ordinary person was unable to cope with the fundamental mechanical problems of pulleys and levers. on the other hand, if we removed all knowledge of scientific psychology from our world, problems in interpersonal relations might easily be coped with and solved much as before. we would still “know” how to avoid doing something asked of us and how to get someone to agree with us; we would still “know” when someone was angry and when someone was pleased. one could even offer sensible explanations for the “whys” of much of the self’s behavior and feelings. in other words, the ordinary person has a great and profound understanding of the self and of other people which, though unformulated or only vaguely conceived, enables one to interact with others in more or less adaptive ways. kohler in referring to the lack of great discoveries in psychology as compared with physics, accounts for this by saying that “people were acquainted with practically all territories of mental life a long time before the founding of scientific psychology.”

          paradoxically, with all this natural, intuitive, commonsense capacity to grasp human relations, the science of human relations had been one of the last to develop. different explanations of this paradox have been suggested. one is that science would destroy the vain and pleasing illusions people have about themselves; but we might ask why people have always loved to read pessimistic, debunking writings, from ecclesiastes to freud. it has also been proposed that just because we know so much about people intuitively, there has been less incentive for studying them scientifically: why should one develop a theory, carry out systematic observations, or make predictions about the obvious? in any case, the field of human relations, with its vast literary documentation but meager scientific treatment, is in great contrast to the field of physics in which there are relatively few nonscientific books.  (435 words)

      注:command vt. 博得;命令。account for 解释,说明。paradoxically反常的是。illusion 幻想。debunking暴露真相的。 ecclesiastes 圣经传道书。freud 弗洛伊德(谮意识论)。incentive刺激,激励。meager 贫乏的。scientific treatment科学阐述。

      1. the author’s statement that “psychology holds a unique position among the sciences” (line 4) is supported by the claim that ______________.

      a. the full meaning of a human relationship may not be obvious
      b. commonsense understanding of human relations can be clear and precise
      c. intuitive knowledge in the physical sciences is relatively advanced
      d. subjective bias is difficult to control in psychological research

      2. it can be inferred that when it comes to people who lived before the coming of scientific psychology, the author would most likely agree that _______________.

      a. their understanding of human relations was quite limited
      b. they were uninterested in acquiring knowledge of the physical world
      c. they misunderstood others more frequently than do people today
      d. their intuitions about human relations were reasonably sophisticated

      3. the author refers to people who are attracted to “pessimistic, debunking writing “ (line 4, the last paragraph) in order to support the idea that ______________.

      a. interesting books about human relations are typically pessimistic
      b. people tend to ignore scientific explanations of human relations
      c. people rarely hold pleasing illusions about themselves
      d. it is doubtful that the science of human relations developed slowly because of a desire to maintain pleasing illusions

      4. it can be inferred that the author assumes that commonsense knowledge of human relations is _______________.

      a. usually sufficiently accurate to facilitate interactions with others
      b. equally well developed among all adults within a given society
      c. biased insofar as it is based on myths and folktales
      d. typically unrelated to an individual’s interactions with other people

      5. according to the text, it has also been suggested that the science of human relations was slow to develop because________.

      a. intuitive knowledge of human relations is derived from philosophy
      b. early scientists were more interested in the physical world
      c. scientific studies of human relations appear to investigate the obvious
      d. the scientific method is difficult to apply to the study of human relations

 


      word study

      1. 词汇辨异:sensible,sensitive, sensational, sentimental sensible 明智的,通情达理的;可觉察的,明显的
) she felt this was the sensible way out of this embarrassing situation. (她觉得这是摆脱这种尴尬局面的明智出路。) 
2) why don’t you do something sensible in your spare time? (你为什么在空余时间不做一点有实际意义的事呢?) 
3) i am sensible of his danger. (我能觉察到他的危险。) 
4) her grief was sensible from her manner. (从她的举止可以明显看到她的悲痛。)

      同根词:sensibly 明智地,有头脑地。sensibility 感应能力:she has an unusual sensibility for colors.
      sensitive 敏感的;灵敏的:
1) mr. povey was exceedingly sensitive to personal criticisms. (povey先生对个人评论十分敏感。) 
2) a sensitive person is one who is easily hurt or offended by things that people do or say. (一个敏感的人往往很容易被别人的所作所为所伤害或冒犯。) 
3) a sensitive instrument is one that will measure very small quantities. (一种灵敏的仪器是能测出微小数量的仪器。)

      sensational 造成轰动的,带刺激性的,令人吃惊的:
1) a sensational story is one likely to excite people.(一个耸人听闻的故事是一个可以激动人心的故事。) 
2) there were sensational developments in this murder case.

      同根词:sensation 知觉,感觉;轰动:
1) after the accident he had no sensation in his left thumb. (这次事故以后他的左手拇指失去知觉。) 
2) the news created a great sensation. (这个消息产生了巨大轰动。)

      sentimental 伤感的,易动感情的:
1) she gets sentimental whenever she thinks of her childhood. (每当她想起她的童年,她变得非常伤感。) 
2) sentimental movies always make me cry.(动情的电影常使我哭泣。)

      2. conceive vt./vi. 想出,想到:
1) who first conceived the idea of filling bags with gas to make balloons? (谁首先想到向口袋充气来制造气球?) 
2) we could not conceive that they would do such a silly thing.(我们无法想象他们会做出这样一件蠢事。)

      用于成语:conceive of 想象,考虑:
1) they could not conceive of the possibility of failure. 
2) i refuse to conceive of such a solution to our problem.

      同根词:conceivable adj. 可以想象出的:there is no conceivable way to raise ten thousand dollars. (想不出办法来筹集一万美元。)
      3. interact (inter + act) 相互作用(with sth. ),互动;相互交往(with sb.)。

      同根词:interaction相互作用,相互交往;interactive(计算机用语)人机对话的,交互式的。[2004年试题rc i]

 

  text  3

          the media can impact current events. as a graduate student at berkeley in the 1960s, i remember experiencing the events related to the people’s park that were occurring on campus. some of these events were given national media coverage in the press and on tv. i found it interesting to compare my impressions of what was going on with perceptions obtained from the news media. i could begin to see events of that time feed on news coverage. this also provided me with some healthy insights into the distinctions between these realities.

          electronic media are having a greater impact on the people’s lives every day. people gather more and more of their impressions from representations. television and telephone communications are linking people to a global village, or what one writer calls the electronic city. consider the information that television brings into your home every day. consider also the contact you have with others simply by using telephone. these media extend your consciousness and your contact. for example, the video coverage of the 1989 san francisco earthquake focused on “live action” such as the fires or the rescue efforts. this gave the viewer the impression of total disaster. television coverage of the iraqi war also developed an immediacy. cnn reported events as they happened. this coverage was distributed worldwide. although most people were far away from these events, they developed some perception of these realities.

          in 1992, many people watched in horror as riots broke out on a sad wednesday evening in los angeles, seemingly fed by video coverage from helicopters. this event was triggered by the verdict in the rodney king beating. we are now in an age where the public can have access to information that enables it to make its own judgments, and most people, who had seen the video of this beating, could not understand how the jury was able to acquit the policemen involved. media coverage of events as they occur also provides powerful feedback that influences events. this can have harmful results, as it seemed on that wednesday night in los angeles. by friday night the public got to see rodney king on television pleading, ‘can we all get along?” by saturday, television seemed to provide positive feedback as the los angeles riot turned out into a rally for peace. the television showed thousands of people marching with banners and cleaning tools. because of that, many more people turned out to join the peaceful event they saw unfolding on television. the real healing, of course, will take much longer, but electronic media will continue to be a part of that process.  (436 words)

          notes:media coverage 媒体报导。feed on 以…为食物,以…为能源,以…为来源。

      1. the best title for the text would be ____________.

         a. positive aspects of media reports                b. how media cover events at present
         c. the 1992 los angeles riots and their causes       d. the strong effect of media on current events

      2. all the following statements are true except _____________.

      a. electronic media can extend one’s contact with the world
      b. all the events occurring on the university campus at berkeley were given national media coverage
      c. video coverage of the 1989 san francisco earthquake gave the viewers the impression of total disaster
      d. those living far away from a certain event can also have some perception of realities by watching television

      3. the term “electronic city” in paragraph 2 refers to _____________.

         a. berkeley          b. earth                c. los angeles              d. san francisco

      4. the 1992 los angeles riots broke out because _____________.

      a. video coverage from helicopters had made people angry
      b. video coverage had provided powerful feedback
      c. the jury proclaimed the policemen involved innocent
      d. people there were not satisfied with policemen involved

      5. it can be inferred from the text that _____________.

      a. the 1992 los angeles riots lasted a whole week
      b. most people hesitated to side with the verdict of the jury
      c. media coverage of events as they occur can have good or bad results
      d. rodney king seemed very angry when he appeared on television on friday

 

text  4  (课外阅读)

          the population is growing more quickly in some parts of the world than others. the continents with the fastest growth rates are latin america (2.9 per cent) and africa (2.6 per cent). asia comes third (2.1 per cent) but because its present population is so large it is there that by far the greatest number of people will be added before the end of the century.

          the main reason is not so much a rise in birth rates as a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in public health services and medical care. many more babies now survive infancy, grow up and become parents, and many more adults are living into old age so that populations are being added to at both ends. in europe and america the death rate began to fall during the industrial revolution. in the developing countries of africa, asia and latin america the fall in death rate did not begin till much later and the birth rate has only recently begun to fall.

          this sudden increase in the population of the developing countries has come at a difficult time. even if their population had not grown so fast they would have been facing a desperate struggle to bring the standard of living of their people up to the point at which there was enough food, housing, education, medical care and employment for everyone to have a reasonable life. the poor countries are having to run faster and faster in their economic activity in order to stay in the same place, but the gap in wealth between rich and poor countries grows wider every year.

          statistics show that rapid population growth creates problems for developing countries. so why don't people have fewer children? statistics from the developed countries suggest that it is only when people's living standards begin to rise that birth rates begin to fall. there are good reasons for this. poor countries cannot afford social services and old age pensions, and people's incomes are so low that they have nothing to spare for savings. as a result, people look to their children to provide them with security in their old age. having a large family can be a form of insurance. and even while they are still quite young, children can do a lot of useful jobs on a small farm. so poor people in a developing country will need to see clear signs of much better conditions ahead before they will think of having smaller families. but their conditions cannot be improved unless there is a reduction in the rate at which population is increasing. this will depend on a very much wider acceptance of family planning(计划生育) and this, in turn, will mean basic changes in attitudes.  (458 words)

          note: not so much … as … 与其说是 …,倒还不如说是 …。

      1. asia will add to itself the greatest number of population in the next decade because it has the ______________.

        a. highest birth rate                                    b. lowest death rate
        c. fastest growth rate                                   d. largest present population

      2. according to paragraph 2, the rapid growth of population is mainly due to ______________.        

        a. the decline in death rates across the world
        b. the sharp increase in birth rates all over the world
        c. the prolonged lives of old people in developing countries
        d. the improvement of people's living standard in developed countries

      3. in the sentence "... populations are being added to at both ends" (paragraph 2), the words "both ends" refer to both _______________.

        a. birth rate and death rate                                b. babies and old people
        c. developed and developing countries                      d. poor and rich people

      4. according to the statistics from the developed countries, ______________.

        a. birth rates will not fall until people's living standards begin to rise
        b. the death rate in america began to fall only after the industrial revolution
        c. the developing countries are running faster and faster in their economic activity
        d. only when the people's living conditions begin to improve will the world population stop growing

      5. it can be concluded from the last paragraph that ______________.

        a. people in developing countries have smaller families as a rule
        b. there is no way to ease the population problem in poor countries
        c. rich countries are helping poor people improve their living conditions
        d. family planning is essential to the final solution of the population problem

 


      iii. writing (图画提纲式应用文)

      directions: some people believe that private cars should be encouraged in beijing. others argue that private cars should be discouraged in capital. there has been a controversy recently over the issue in a newspaper in beijing. write a letter to the newspaper’s editor to

          1. describe the present situation of private cars in beijing,

          2. offer reasons for or against owning private cars, and

          3. give your own opinion on the issue.

          write a letter of about 160 -- 200 words within 30--35 minutes. your letter must be written neatly on answer sheet 2.

      北京拥有250万辆汽车,其中私家车达到170万辆。

      尊敬的先生/女士:

          我现在给您写信以表示我愿意参加私家车问题的争论并提出我的看法。

          随着生活水平的迅速提高,越来越多的北京居民拥有自己的汽车。统计数字表明,北京有250万辆汽车,其中私家车达到170万辆。汽车数量的增加产生了一系 列问题,如空气污染、噪音、交通堵塞和汽油短缺。这样就引起了一场争论:北京是否应该鼓励私家车?人们对这个问题有不同的想法。

          许多居民反对拥有汽车。在他们看来,北京必须限制私家车。原因很明显。首先,汽车加剧了空气污染。北京现在深受空气严重污染之苦。如果人们都要拥有私家 车,已经污染的大气将变得更脏。其次,私家车可能对北京业已拥挤的交通状况是一个可怕的威胁。如果更多的汽车开上繁华的街道,交通堵塞将会更严重。这对我 们大家来说确是公害。最后,汽车消耗大量燃料。虽然中国拥有丰富的石油资源,但是它们正在日趋减少。所有这些事实只能有一种解决办法:限止日益增长的汽车 数量。

          我的看法是北京不应该鼓励私家车。为把清洁的空气、宽阔安全的道路和富饶的石油资源留给子孙后代,我们对私家车只能说“不”。至于对交通工具的巨大需求,我们可以发展公交系统来代替私家车。总而言之,北京不需要那么多私家车。

          如果您需要对这个问题的进一步评论,请速电告。我家的电话号码是66661818。谢谢!

      顺致

      敬意

      李明

      dear sir or madam,

          i’m writing to you to express my willingness to take part in the controversy on private cars and advance my views.

          with the living standards rising rapidly, more and more beijing residents have cars of their own. statistics show that in    beijing alone, there are 2.5 million cars, among which private cars add up to(=number) 1.7 million. the increase in the number of cars brings about a lot of problems, such as air pollution, noise, traffic congestion and gas shortage. then a controversy arises: whether private cars should be encouraged in beijing? people differ in their opinions on it.

          many residents are against owning cars. according to them, private cars have to be limited in beijing. the reasons for it are obvious. to begin with, cars contribute to air pollution. beijing is now plagued by serious air pollution. if people are to have cars of their own, the already contaminated atmosphere will get even dirtier. secondly, private cars can be a terrible threat to the already heavy traffic in the city. if more cars are allowed onto busy streets, there will be more traffic jams, which are really a public hazard to all of us. finally, cars consume a large amount of fuel. though china is rich in its oil resources, they are running out rapidly. all these facts allow of only one solution: to limit the ever-growing number of cars.

          in my opinion, private cars should be discouraged in beijing. in order to leave clean air, wide and safe roads and abundant energy resources to our descendants, we have to say “no” to private cars. as far as the great demand for means of transport is concerned, we can develop mass transit to take the place of private cars. in short, beijing does not need so many private cars.

          if you require any further comment on the issue, please feel free to call me up. my home number is 66661818.

          thanks.

      yours sincerely,

      li min  (322 words)                                                             

      背记重点词语汉英对照: 1. 提出某人对…的看法:advance(=give/put forward/present) one’s view on sth.   2. 总计达到:add up to, amount to, reach。 3. 引起许多问题:bring about (=give rise to) many problems。 4. 在…方面有分歧:differ in …。 5. 反对:be against, object to, be opposed to。 6. (某物被)用完:run out, be used up。 7. (某事)只容许有: allow of。 8. (在…方面)富有:be rich in…。 9. 拒绝:refuse, reject, say “no” to sth.。 10. 代替:take the place of, replace。

 

put the following sentences from chinese into english:

          1. 我现在给您写信以表示我愿意参加私家车问题的争论并提出我的看法。

          2. 汽车数量的增加产生了一系列问题,如空气污染、噪音、交通堵塞和汽油短缺。

          3. 人们对这个问题的看法有分歧。

          4. 许多居民反对拥有汽车。

          5. 只要我们的社会充满着一爱,明天会变得更美好、更光明。

          6. 这些事实只能有一种解释。

      iv. as 用法小结:

      as of (=as from) 从 … 起。例如:1) you are in charge(负责) as of today.    2) the agreement starts as from march 13.

      as for至于。例如:1) as for me, i shall return there on arrival.       2) as for me, i’m in favor of the first view.

      as to 关于;至于。例如:he asked my advice as to what to do next.

      as with 与 … 一样。例如:as with so many of the major problems of society, the precise extent and nature of the environmental crisis are not entirely clear.

      as against (=in contrast with) 与 … 相对照。例如:1) she gets saturdays off in her new job as against working alternate weekends in her last one. (她新找的这份工作星期六放假,而原来的那份工作周末是隔周放假。) 2) the business done this year amounts to $20,000 as against $ 15,000 last year.

      as regards 至于。例如:there are no special rules as regards what clothes you should wear.(至于应该穿什么衣服没有硬性规定。)

      as follows 如下。例如:1) the reasons are as follows: ….            2) the report reads as follows: ….

      as it were 可以说,姑且这么说。例如:he is, as it were, a walking dictionary. (他,可以说,是一部活词典。)

      as opposed to 和 … 相反。例如:john likes rice, as opposed to mary, who hates it.

      as soon as possible 尽快地。例如:we should take steps as soon as possible.

      may(might , could) as well do sth. 不妨,最好(做某事)。例如:since it is late, we might as well go back home.

      as a rule 通常。例如:1) as a rule they sat together very quietly.        2) his writing as a rule is elegant.

      as yet 到这时为止(还没有,还不是)。例如:but none of these are as yet carefully thought-out plans.

      such … as to 这样 … 以致。例如:i went about my job in such a way as to try to kill two birds with one stone.

      not so much …as 与其说…,倒不如说…:the trumpet player was certainly loud. but i wasn’t bothered by his loudness so much as by his lack of talent. (这个吹号手的声音确实很大,但我烦的与其说是他吹得太吵,倒不如说是他缺乏天分。)

      such as 例如:studies show that the things that contribute most to a sense of happiness cannot be bought with money, such as a good family life, friendship and work satisfaction. (研究表明,那些最能使人产生幸福感的东西是不能用金钱买到的,如和睦的家庭生活、友谊和事业上的满足感。)

      as long as (=so long as)只要(引导条件从句):as long as he works hard, i don’t mind when he finishes the experiment.

      just as … , so … 正如 … 一样,… 也 … 。例如:just as air is important to man, so is water to fish.

      as though (=as if ) 似乎。例如:christie stared angrily at her boss and turned away, as though to go out of the office.

      much as 虽然。例如:much as i admired david as a poet, i don’t like him as a man. (虽然我仰慕作为诗人的大卫,但我不喜欢他的为人。)

      as 虽然 (引导部分倒装的让步从句):young as he is, he knows a lot. (他虽年轻,但很懂事。)

      as 作关系代词,引导定语从句,代表整个主句的意思:1)a good many proposals were raised by the delegates, as was to be expected . (正如所料,代表们提出了许多建议。)  2) as might be expected, the response to the question was mixed. (正如所料,人们对这个问题观点不一。)

      as…as 引出比较状语从句:americans eat twice as much protein as they actually need every day. (美国人摄取的蛋白质是他们实际需要量的两倍。)

      作业:1. 复习本单元内容,把阅读理解text 1译成汉语,
      2. 英汉对照本单元作文,注意信件应用文的框架,
      3. 背诵并改写本单元作文,注意段落主题句的展开方法,
      4. 有计划阅读“复习指导”各章的内容,特别注意相关的注释。

      赠言:分秒必争,加紧复习;深入思考,改进方法;举一反三,提高效率。

 

      参考译文  text  1

          做好准备来迎接我们称之为全球化的大戏剧的第二幕。20世纪80年代开始了一场大规模的制造业大迁移,从工业化国家到第三世界,这种迁移至今还在加速。最 近10年中,人们目睹了第二次大迁移,这一次是第三产业;许多白领的专业性工作沿着蓝领迁移的相同路线流到亚洲及其他各地。

          我们认为,在全球经济发展中最近一次的迁移会随着时间对每个人提供更多的发展机遇,因为各个国家都集中精力去做它们做得最好的工作。但是这种调整、改变和 适应很可能对于那些中产阶级的美国人和欧洲人来说是十分痛苦的,因为他们看到自己在软件编制、芯片设计、建筑业、和财会方面的工作迁移到印度、中国、以色 列、俄国和菲律宾。如果第三产业的迁移没有得到促进增长的政府优惠政策的干预调解,那就会出现严重的风险:反全球化的各种力量将会逐渐形成一支新的白领失 业大军。

          第三产业迁移的范围现在只是初露端倪。我们现在能够看出这种势头,但是还没有看到这场迁移的力量和规模。技术泡沫的瓦解和经济的微弱复苏正导致越来越多的 美国银行、保险业、信用卡、财会、投资金融、高科技、工程和设计公司把大量的白领工作外包给第三世界。

          这种形势很可能已经不是一种周期性的现象。互联网、数字化、白领技术流向国外以及外包成本的大幅度下降将很可能使第三产业的迁移成为经济生活中的永久特 征。振奋人心的消息是,像商品一样的第三产业工作迅猛外流将增加美国公司的利润并提高这些公司的效益,并且为下一次产生增长的巨大突破准备条件。美国经济 的推动力是革新,而不是低附加值产品或服务的规模生产。70年代和80年代痛苦的丧失制造业铺平了90年代高科技收益的道路。现在同样的因素在起作用。

          至于印度、中国和其他国家,它们正在获得大量的高薪工作,壮大了中产阶级并减少了贫困人口。因此,中国正作为世界增长的火车头而崛起。2003年11月美国向中国的出口增加30%,年增长量为240亿美元,相当于美国对法国的出口额。

          美国必须毫不犹豫的行动。美国应该做它过去已经做过的事情 – 提高附加值的梯子来开拓新产品和新服务。这就意味着要推进更良好的教育,完成改革资本市场的任务,降低国内外企业和投资商的风险。如果美国能够重新启动增 长的发动机,那么美国就可以高枕无忧,不必担心大量白领工作的外流。如果不是这样,那么今后可能会出现严重的麻烦。

      参考译文  text  2

          人类关系从古代起就受到人们的注意。人们的风俗习性被记录在无数的神话、民间故事、小说、剧本和通俗短文或哲学随笔中。虽然人类关系的全部意义可能并非一 目了然,但是一眼就能理解的感情和行为的复杂性却多得惊人。因此心理学在各门科学中占有与众不同的地位。

          “直觉的”知识可以是非常透彻的并且大大有助于我们去理解人的行为,而在物理科学中这样的常识性的知识是比较简单的。如果我们从世界上抹去全部物理学的知 识,我们就不仅没有汽车和电视机,我们甚至可能会发现,普通人就无法顺利解决滑轮和杠杆这样的基本的力学问题。但是,如果我们从世界上去掉全部科学心理学 的知识,人际关系中的许多问题还是可以和以前一样很容易地去处理和解决。我们仍然会“知道”如何躲避做别人要我们做的事情和如何使某人同意我们的意见;我 们仍然会“知道”,什么时候某人生气了、什么时候某人高兴了。人们甚至能够提出许多合乎情理的解释,来说明自身行为和感情的许多原因。换句话说,普通人非 常了解自身和其他人,尽管这种了解没有得到系统阐述,或者只是模糊地体会到,也能使人以多少适应的方式去和其他人交在。考勒在谈到心理学与物理学相比缺少 伟大的发现时,解释了这一点,他说“人们在创建科学心理学以前很长时间就已经非常熟悉精神生活中几乎所有的领域。

          事情反常的是,虽然有了所有这种自然的、直觉的、常识性的能力去掌握人类关系,但人类关系的科学一直发展缓慢。已经提出了对这种反常情况的不同解释。其中 之一认为,科学会摧毁人们有关自身的自负的、乐观的幻想;但是我们会问,那人们为什么总还喜欢去阅读悲观的、暴露真相的著作呢,从圣经的传道书到弗洛伊德 的潜意识论。还有人提出,正是因为我们对人直觉地了解得那么多,所以就缺乏动力来科学地研究它们:对于一目了然的事人们为什么还要提出一条理论,进行系统 的观察或做出预测呢?不管怎样,人类关系的这个领域,文字资料多如牛毛但科学阐述十分贫乏,这与物理领域形成鲜明对照,在物理领域几乎没有什么非科学的书 籍。

      参考译文  text  3

          媒体可以影响当前的事态。作为60年代勃克雷的一个大学毕业生,我记得经历了发生在校园里的与人民公园有关的事件。其中有的事件在报刊和电视上作了全国性 的媒体报导。我觉得把所发生的事件留下的印象与从新闻媒体上所得到的感觉作一比较是很有意思的。我开始能见到那时的许多事件是从新闻报导中来的。这也使我 们对两种现实之间的差别有了一些有益的认识。

          电子媒体对人们的日常生活有更大的影响。人们从媒体报道中得到越来越多的印象。电视和电话的通讯工具把人们和地球村连结在一起,有一位作家把地球村称作电 子城市。想一想电视每天把信息带到你的家里。再想一想,只要用电话你就可以与其他人保持接触。这些媒体延伸了你的触觉。例如,1989年旧金山大地震的录 相报导注重“实况行动”,如火灾或抢救工作。这就使观众对整个灾难留下印象。伊拉克战争的电视报导使人立即了解事态的进展。美国有线电视新闻网进行了实况 报导。这些报导遍布全球。尽管许多人远离这些事件,但是他们能感觉到这些事件的真实状况。

          1992年在洛杉矶,许多人在恐怖中目睹了悲惨的星期三晚上所发生的骚乱,这一场景是由从直升飞机上拍摄的录相报导所提供的。这次事件是由路德 - 金被殴打的法院裁决所触发的。我们现在所处的时代是公众能够得到信息使他们能做出自己的判断,并且许多人,由于看到过这次殴打的录相,所以无法理解陪审团 怎么能对涉案的警察作无罪的判决。对事件的媒体实况报导还提供了影响事件发展的有力反馈。这可能会产生有害的结果,就像在洛杉矶那个星期三晚上似乎所发生 的后果。到星期五晚上,公众看到路德 - 金在电视上恳求说,“我们大家难道不能和睦相处吗?到星期六,电视似乎提供了正面的反馈,洛杉矶骚乱逐渐转变为和平集会。电视报导了成千上万的人手拿旗帜 和清洁工具游行。因此,更多的人转而参加他们在电视上看到的和平行动。当然,真正的解决将需要更长的时间,但是电子媒体将继续是这个进程的一个组成部分。

      阅读欣赏 时尚英语 精品译文

          tse spring 2004  the 1960s … a time when high society took cocktails around the pool, and time was taken out to celebrate the good things in life. and it is this leisurely era that has inspired the spring 2004 tse collection, reflecting a bygone era of simple, stylish chic(时尚,潇洒).

          key features of the spring collection are the pairings of superfine cashmere sweaters in eggshell with a slim jade skirt that falls just to the knee, reflecting the quintessential carefree mood of the collection. the silhouette is easy but deliberate, with a cozy oversized v-neck worn with wide-leg tailored trousers, or a fitted polo top with slim bermuda shorts. it’s no wonder tse is a top purveyor of fibers to die for(渴望).

          tse 2004 年春夏系列  19世纪20年代,上流社会举着鸡尾酒在游泳池旁尽情欢聚,人人开怀庆祝美好生活。正是这种休闲的年代激发了tse 2004春夏系列的灵感,反映了过去那种简单而时髦的潇洒风格。

          tse春夏系列的特点是将顶级的蛋壳色开丝米毛衣和紧身的碧绿及膝修身裙搭配,充满潇洒自如的喜悦。简约的线条加上暖和、宽身的v领上衣配上利索的喇叭裤,或是贴身的polo上衣加上修长的bermuda短裤。难怪tse提供的纺织品令人心碎。

      趣味英语

          late on after noon as i rode the bus home from work, i sat next to a middle-aged man. beside him a little girl who seemed to be lost in(入迷于) a book of fairy tales. suddenly the little girl looked up from her book. “excuse me,” she said, pulling at the man’s sleeve, “does m-i-r-a-g-e(幻景) spell (拚写成) marriage?”

          ‘oh, most definitely, my dear,” the man replied with a sigh, “most definitely!”

      帮助你学习记忆单词的有效方法 -- 同根词解析
      im  [拉丁语]  想象,偶象
      *image  n. 像,形象;映象,图象                       *imagine  vt. 想象,设想;料想,猜想
      *imagination  n. 想象,想象力;空想,幻觉              *imaginary  a. 想象中的,假想的,虚构的
      *imaginative  a. 富有想象力的                          *imaginable  a. 可以想象的

      *imitate  [im偶象 + it 进行 + ate = 象某一样子去做]  vt. 模仿,仿效,仿制
      *imitation  n. 仿制;仿造品                             *imitative  a. 模仿的,仿制的

      iden, ident  [拉丁语] =same 相同,识别                *identify  vt. 认出,鉴定;(with)认为 … 等同于;使关系密切
      *identification  n. 识别,鉴别                           *identity  n. 同一性,一致性
      *identical  a. 相同的,相等的                        *identifiable  a. 可识别的

      mark, marg [英] = sign   记号                      
      *mark  n. 痕迹,斑点;记号,标记:(考试的)分数  vt.作记号,表明;给(试卷等)打分                   
      *remark  [re再 + mark 作记号]  vt. 说,评论说   vi. [on]评论,议论   n. 话语,谈论,评论
      *remarkable  a. 显著的,值得注意的,异常的,非凡的

      *margin     n. 页边空白,边缘;余地                 *marginal  a. 记在页边的,边缘的,有旁注的
      *obey vt. 服从;顺从    *obedient adj. 顺从的

 
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