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高中英语语法详解:第10章 形容词和副词 (二)

第10章  形容词和副词 (二)

8. 形容词与副词的比较级 

大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。

1) 规则变化


单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est来构成比较级和最高级。


构成法

原级

比较级

最高级

一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est

tall

taller

tallest

以不发音的e结尾的单音词和少数以- le结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st

nice

nicer

nicest

以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-est

big

bigger

biggest

"以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词,改y为i,再加-er,-est   

busy

busier

busiest

少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-est

clever/narrow

cleverer/ narrower

cleverest/ narrowest

其他双音节词和多音节词,在前面加more,most来构成比较级和最高级

important/ easily

more important/ more easily

most important/ most easily

 2) 不规则变化


原级

比较级

最高级

good

better

best

well(健康的)

worse

worst

bad

ill(有病的)

old

older/elder

oldest/eldest

much/many

more

most

little

less

least

far

farther/further

farthest/furthest

9.as + 形容词或副词原级 + as

1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。例如:

he cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名词。例如:

this is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外一个一样好。

i can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸,我也能。

3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。例如:

this room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。

your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。

4)倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the … + of。例如:

this bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。

this bridge is three times the length of that one.

your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。

your room is twice the size of mine.

10. 比较级形容词或副词 + than 。例如:

you are taller than i. 你比我高。

they lights in your room are brighter than those in mine.你房间的那些灯比我房间里的亮。

注意:

1)要避免重复使用比较级。

(错) he is more cleverer than his brother.

(对) he is more clever than his brother.

(对) he is clever than his brother.

2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。

(错) china is larger than any country in asia.

(对) china is larger than any other countries in asia.

3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。

the population of shanghai is larger than that of beijing.

it is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。

比较:which is larger, canada or australia?

which is the larger country, canada or australia?

she is taller than her two sisters.

she is the taller of the two sisters.

11.可修饰比较级的词

1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等。

2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

12. many, old 和 far

1) 如果后接名词时,much more +不可数名词,many more +可数名词复数。   

2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。例如:

my elder brother is an engineer. 我哥哥是个工程师。

mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 玛丽是三姐妹中最大的。

3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further。一般father 表示距离,further表示进一步。例如:

i have nothing further to say. 我没什么要说了。

13. the + 最高级 + 比较范围

1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。例如:

the sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。

形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。例如:

it is a most important problem. =it is a very important problem. 这是个很重要的问题。

注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

(错) tom is the tallest of his three brothers.

(对) tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost。例如:

this hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 这帽子差不多是最大的了。

注意:

a. very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。

this is the very best.

this is much the best.

b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。例如:

africa is the second largest continent.非洲是第二大洲。

3) 最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。例如:

mike is the most intelligent in his class. 马克是班上最聪明的。

mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构也可以表示最高级含义。例如:

nothing is so easy as this. 没比这更简单的了。

=nothing is easier than this.

=this is the easiest thing.

14. 和more有关的词组

1) the more…the more… 越……就越……。例如:

the harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 越努力,进步越大。

2) more b than a=less a than b    与其说a不如说b。例如:

he is more lazy than slow at his work. = he is less slow than lazy at his work. 他工作时,与其说是反应慢不如说是懒。

3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多。例如:

the officials could see no more than the emperor. 官员们看到的和皇帝一样多。

no less… than… 与……一样……。例如:

he is no less diligent than you. 他和你一样勤勉。

4) more than 不只是,非常。例如:

she is more than kind to us all. 她对我们非常热心。

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