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英语学习方法:聪明的学习方法,学习如何事半功倍

yun 于2016-07-12发布 l 已有人阅读

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“Be sure to study hard for that test!”

“要为考试努力学习!”

How many times have you heard that? But what does it even mean to study hard? Do you have to study until your head hurts? It sounds like it!

听过这句话无数次了?但是到底什么才是努力学习?要学到头疼?听起来是的!

The whole idea of studying harder suggests that you really don’t try very hard as a normal practice, and that is probably not true. So instead of studying harder for better results, you can study smarter, and there is good news: it won’t give you a headache.

努力学习意味着你平常并不把努力当做一回事儿,但事实可能并非如此。因此,除了为得到高分而努力学习,你可以聪明地学,好消息是:聪明地学可不会头疼。

How to Study Smarter

怎样聪明地学

There are a few adjustments you can make to your normal study routine to make the most of your time and effort. These adjustments are based on a few scientific discoveries about learning.

在你日常的学习规划中做出适当调整可以充分利用时间和努力。这些调整基于有关学习的科学调查。

We learn over time with repetition.

我们学习时要复习。

We learn from active experience.

我们要在积极体验中学。

We learn through comparison.

我们要通过对比来学习。

We learn by testing ourselves.

我们要通过测试来学习。

Time and Repetition

学习时间和复习

Some studies on brain science have shown that the practice of revisiting information enhances learning. In other words, it is a good idea to study material more than one time, over a period of days.

有关脑部的研究表明复习有助于强化所学内容。换言之,学习最好不止一遍,要隔几天复习一次。

To study smarter, then, you should start your study session a few days ahead of time and study a few hours, walk away from the material, and study the same material again a few days later.

要聪明地学,就要在计划前几天开始学习,学几个小时,放下学习材料,几天后再看一次。

Learn Through Experience

通过体验学习

There are indications that our brains love to make associations or “connections” when we read or observe something new. It seems that the more we enhance the experience as we read, the more we may retain.

研究表明大脑在我们阅读或观察新事物时喜欢建立联系。这表明,阅读时我们强化的体验越多,我们能记下的就越多。

As you study, you should incorporate active study strategies like drawing images, writing outlines, and repeating what you’ve learned from memory.

学习时,你应该运用积极的学习策略,如画画、写大纲、回忆所学的内容。

(FYI: highlighting is not an active study strategy!)

(仅供参考:用记号笔可不是积极的学习策略!)

It is also a good idea to study in a variety of places and environments to stimulate more associations. For example, you could study once in a quiet library and again in a very different environment, like a park or your own room.

在不同的环境中学习也是一个创造更多联系的好建议。例如,你可以在安静的图书馆中学一次,然后在一个完全不同的环境中复习,比如在公园或者是自己的卧室。

Comparing As We Study

通过对比来学习

We understand new things by comparing them to things we already know.

我们理解新事物时通过与我们熟知的事物进行对比。

To demonstrate this, try to describe a lime to someone who has never encountered one. Your depiction might go something like this:

要解释这一点,类似于试着向一个从没见过青柠的人描述青柠。你的描述可能像这样:

“It’s like a lemon, but it’s green. It tastes and smells like a mix between a lemon and a tomato vine.”

“它像柠檬,但是是绿色的。尝起来、闻起来像柠檬与番茄混合的味道。”

That person would most likely be able to identify a lime easily, because he or she will be able to consult stored knowledge to conjure new information.

对方很可能可以轻易勾画出青柠的形象,因为他(她)可以调用自己的知识储备形成新信息。

Any time you study new material, your brain consults stored knowledge to make sense of the new things you’re encountering. For example, if you live in the United States and you are required to learn about communism, you will most likely learn by comparing that system to a system you already know, like capitalism.

每次你学习新材料,大脑就会调用已有的知识储备来理解你碰上的新事物。比如,你住在美国,被要求学共产主义,你会把这个系统和你已知的系统,如资本主义作对比。

When you study terms to prepare for a test, you should always select two terms at the same time and describe the differences between them.

当你为了考试而学习术语,你应该选同时选两个术语,并描述这二者的区别。

Learning By Testing

通过测试来学习

Recent studies tell us that learning is enhanced through trial and error. When it comes to studying effectively, it turns out that testing is one of the best ways to prepare for testing!

最近的研究表明学习通过尝试与犯错来以巩固。要高效地学习,自我检测是备考的最佳途径!

There is good evidence that the very best way for you to learn is to take a series of practice tests. This means that the process of trying to answer questions, getting questions wrong, discovering why you were wrong, and correcting yourself—is the smartest study strategy of all.

一个有力的证明表示学习的最佳方法就是多次测验。这是一个试着答题、回答错误、分析错误、改正自我的过程,这是所有学习策略中最有效的。

Of course, if you want to do this right, you should have someone else prepare a few practice tests for you. This can be easy: just find a partner (or a group) and write questions for each other.

当然,如果你要正确地利用这个策略,还需要别人给你出题。这很简单:只要找一个学伴儿(或是学习小组),几个人互相出题。

In summary, the science says this: if you want to study harder and smarter, you should start early, find a study partner, get active, and test yourself.

总之,最科学的方法就是:如果你要事半功倍地学习,就要早开始,找同伴,积极行动,检测自我。

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