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研究:树木品种多样的森林更抗旱

kira86 于2018-10-08发布 l 已有人阅读

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Diverse Tree Portfolio Weathers Droughts Better

树木品种多样能更好地抵御干旱

You've probably heard the financial advice that a diversified portfolio is better in turbulent times? Well that same wisdom may hold true for our stocks of trees. Because ecologists say forests with a diversity of trees are better at weathering drought. The reason:

你可能听过“在动荡时期,投资组合最好多元化”这条理财建议?而同样的智慧也适用于我们对于树木的种植方面。因为生态学家表示,多元化的森林能更好地抵御干旱。其原因是因为:

There's a huge difference and a huge diversity of water transport strategies in trees. William Anderegg is an ecologist at the University of Utah. "It's everything from having deeper roots or shallower roots, to having these pipes that are incredibly well armored to withstand drought or incredibly weak in the face of drought."

犹他大学的生态学家威廉·安德瑞格表示:“不同树木之间的水分输送策略存在巨大的差异以及多样性。一切都视根系更深还是根系更浅而定,根系上的管子如同装甲,可以决定树木是能抵御干旱,还是在干旱面前不堪一击。”

Anderegg and his team studied droughts in 40 forests around the world. And the forests with diverse tree populations, with a mix of water-management strategies, did better than forests made up of just one or a few species. Could be a couple reasons for that.

安德瑞格和他的团队研究了全球40多处森林的干旱情况。树木种群多样化以及具有不同的水源管理策略的森林,比只有一种或较少种类的森林在抗旱方面表现得更好。导致这种情况的原因可能有几点。

One is that there are other forces that are acting on the ecosystem at the same time. Other stressors like insect attack, or other things they're competing for, competing for light and for nutrients, and this is why a more diverse forest is going to be more functional. It'll be more resilient to drought but maybe also have higher carbon uptake rates over the long term.

“其一:还有其它力量同时在生态系统中发挥作用。比如其它的压力源,如昆虫的攻击,或其它竞争元素,比如光和营养之类的东西,这就是为何一个树木种群多样化的森林将会更强大的原因。树木种群多样化的森林对于干旱的适应性更强,从长远来看,这样的森林或许碳吸收率也会更高。”

The second possibility, he says, is that a monoculture of drought-ready trees may look really resilient to drought. "Up until the drought is severe enough that a whole bunch of the trees shut down or even die. That threshold cliff response you would get in a one species forest and you may not get in a diverse forest." The full report is in the journal Nature.

他表示,第二种可能性是耐旱树木的单一栽培可能看起来对干旱更具抵抗力。他说:“直到干旱严重到足以让一整片森林的树木关闭吸水系统甚至死亡。你可能会在树木单一栽培的森林中看到这种临界点反应,但可能不会在树木品种多样的森林中看到。”完整的报告发表在《自然》杂志上。

The lesson for land managers, he says, is that forest restoration efforts following wildfires and disease outbreaks might want to focus on planting a diverse portfolio of tree species. So that even if water plummets, tree stocks will, hopefully, remain stable.

他表示,土地管理者可以得到的教训是:森林野火或病害爆发后的修复工作可能需要重点关注于树木品种多样化种植。那么,即使水分骤降,树木的数量也有希望保持稳定。

(小e英语Jewel翻译,欢迎捉虫!)

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