立即打开

BBC 100件藏品中的世界史001:Mummy of Hornedjitef木乃伊霍尼杰提mp3

Mummy of Hornedjitef.jpg
BBC 100件藏品中的世界史

001:Mummy of Hornedjitef木乃伊霍尼杰提mp3

Abstract  内容摘要:
Mummy of Hornedjitef (third century BC). A wooden coffin from Thebes, Egypt
木乃伊霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)(公元前3世纪),木制棺椁,发现于古埃及底比斯城(Thebes)


MP3 文本:
The sound of the past is in fact the sound of a ghost, it's a haunting magnetic pulse -which is all that's left of a mighty star that we can still hear today, thanks to the Centre for Astrophysics at Jodrell Bank.
远古的声音实际上是幽灵的声音,那是挥之不去的磁脉冲波——一个巨大的恒星仅存的残余。感谢坐落于周德尔堤(Jodrell Bank)的天体物理学研究中心,我们今天依然能够听到这个磁波。

The explosion that killed this star was so intense, that it was seen in broad daylight across Europe, North America and China in the summer of the year 1054; at least that's what the year was called in Europe. So what was our world up to, when men and women, however they counted the years, were gazing up to the heavens at this dying star, which they could see and we can still hear?
时值1054年的夏天,至少欧洲纪年法如是说,导致这颗恒星陨落的爆炸如此剧烈,以至于横跨欧洲、北美以及中国的居民在光天化日下见证了这一幕。这颗恒星他们看得到,我们听得到,那么,忽略各种纪年方式,当那些古人仰视苍穹中这颗即将陨落的恒星时,我们的世界何去何从?

What were they doing, making, thinking? Well, a thousand years ago in America, pyramids are taking shape on the Mississippi river; the world's first bank notes are circulating in China; a magnificent Baghdad is the largest city in the world; in West Africa, Ghana rules a vast empire and, on a chilly island in northern Europe, there's a nasty surprise on the horizon for a king called Harold.
他们在从事什么,制作什么,思考什么?1000年前,美洲密西西比河上金字塔日将成形,在中国世界上首批纸币开始流通,雄伟的巴格达城在世界上首屈一指,西非的加纳统治着泱泱帝国,欧洲一个冰冷的小岛上正酝酿着一次针对哈罗德(Harold)国王的卑鄙奇袭。

In these programmes, I'm travelling back in time and across the globe, to see how we humans, over two million years, have shaped our world, and been shaped by it. And I'm going to tell this story exclusively through the 'things' that humans have made ... all sorts of 'things', carefully designed and then either admired and preserved or used, broken and thrown away.
 在这一系列节目中,我将追溯时光,纵横全球,探索200多万年来我们人类如何塑造世界并为世界所塑造。我将仅仅通过各种各样精心打造的“人造物”——或为人敬仰、保存,或为人使用、损坏、丢弃,来讲述这个故事。

I've chosen just a hundred objects from different points on our journey -from a cooking pot to a golden galleon, from a Stone Age tool to a credit card, and in each programme I'm going to be talking about one object from the British Museum's collection.
在这次时空之旅中,我从不同的点上选取了正好100件物品——从一个烹饪罐到一艘金帆船,或从一个石器时代的工具到一张现代的信用卡。每期节目中,我将谈论大英博物馆馆藏中的一件展品。

'When I see it, I immediately think of the mastery of technology and art, the welding of the two ...' 'I just thought it was beautiful to look at, that it made me feel that it was used, and used again and again ...' 'It's a beautiful object, and it's fascinating, of course, because it's probably quite accurate ...' 'Holding this I can feel what it was like to be out on the African savannahs ...'
“看见它,我便想到精湛的技术和圆熟的艺术,以及二者的紧密结合……”“我就是觉得它看上去很美,让我联想到它曾被人们反反复复使用……”“这件展品很精美,也很迷人,当然啦,因为它可能相当精确……”“握着它时,我仿佛感受到了非洲大草原上的野外生活……”

We will get to the very beginning of human history, but I'm not going to start there because I want to begin with the mummies -which is where I began when I first came through these doors into the British Museum in 1954 at the age of eight, and I think that's where most people begin when they first visit a museum.
我们以后会回到初民时期,但是我的故事并不始于彼时,因为我打算先讲述木乃伊——1954年八岁的我第一次穿越大英博物馆的重门,首先映入眼帘的便是那些木乃伊,它们是我探索世界史的开端。我猜测多数访客的博物馆之行也始于此处。

munaiyi.jpg

It's a pretty safe bet that most of the children you can hear round about me are also headed for the Egyptian mummies. What fascinated me then was the mummies themselves, the thrilling gruesome thought of the dead bodies, but I'm now much more interested in the mummy cases - and I've chosen one particular mummy case for this opening programme, because it carries all the different kinds of messages across the millennia, signals from the past if you like, that 'things' can communicate to us, and that I'm going to be looking for in all the objects in this series.
我敢说你现在听到的我身边这些孩子也是冲着木乃伊去的。当时我着迷的是那些木乃伊本身,它们激起了我对死尸既兴奋又恐惧的想象,但现在我对这些木乃伊的案例更感兴趣。我特别为首期节目选择了这一典型的木乃伊案例,因为它携带了“人造物”所能传递的穿越千载的远古音信。在这一系列节目中,我将在这些物品中探求这些音信。

Telling history through things, whether it's a mummy's coffin or a credit card, is what museums are for and, because the British Museum has collected things from all over the globe, it's not a bad place to try to tell a world history. Of course it can only be 'a' history of the world, not 'the' history.
通过如木乃伊棺材或信用卡这样的物品讲述历史,是所有博物馆的目标和功能。大英博物馆是用来复述世界简史的一个不错的选择,因为它搜集了世界各地的物品。当然,它所能讲述的只是世界“简史”,而非世界“历史”。

When people come to the museum, they choose their own objects and make their own journey round the world and through time, but I think what they will find, is that their own histories quickly intersect with everybody else's -and when that happens, you no longer have a history of a particular people or nation, but a story of endless connections. Nobody has thought more deeply about this than the Indian economist and Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen:
人们造访博物馆时,会依据个人喜好浏览展品,制定自己的时空之旅。但我想,人们会发现,其本族历史旋即与外族史纵横交错,此时,历史已经不再局限于某个民族或国家,而是一个无限延伸、环环相扣的故事。关于这点,印度经济学家、诺贝尔奖得主阿玛蒂亚∙森(Amartya Sen)的认识最为深刻:

'I think what is really very important to recognise is that, when we look at the history of the world, we're not looking at the history of different civilisations truncated and separated from each other. They've a huge amount of contact with each other, there is a kind of inter-connectedness.
“我认为认识到这点非常重要,即纵观世界历史,我们看到的并非各大文化彼此隔绝分离的历史。各种文化之间交流丰富,存在着某种内在联系。

So I've always felt, not to think of the history of the world as a history of civilisations, but as a history of world civilisations evolving in often similar, often diverse ways, always interacting with each other. And this is a very different view from the clash of civilisations to which we were exposed some years ago, as a way to understand enmity in the world. Enmity has not been the general condition of the relationship between people across the world in history.'
所以我始终认为,不应把世界历史视为各种文化的简单结合体,而应是其相互作用,遵循相似又相异的轨道不断进化的历史。我的观点很大程度上背离了几年前提出的文化冲突论。文化冲突是我们理解世界敌对状态的一种方法,但纵观世界历史,这种状态并非人类关系的主流。”

Most of us I think, if we come back to a museum that we visited as a child, have the sense that we've changed enormously, while the things have remained serenely the same, but of course they haven't. Thanks to constant research and to new scientific techniques, what we can know about them is constantly growing. Let's look at one of the most impressive mummy cases in the British Museum. It was made around 240 BC for a high-ranking Egyptian priest called Hornedjitef.
 回到童年时代参观过的博物馆,我们大多会感慨物是人非。事实上,随着持续的研究和科技的进步,那些展品也发生了变化,我们对它们的了解不断增长。让我们来看看大英博物馆木乃伊展品中最令人印象深刻的那件吧。它大约制作于公元前240年,主人是一位名为霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)的埃及高级牧师。

There's a massive black outer case in the shape of a human body, there's an elaborately decorated inner case, and then the mummy itself. Everything we know about Hornedjitef, we know from this group of things. He is his own document if you like, and it's a document that continues to give up its secrets. My colleague, John Taylor, has been researching the mummies in the British Museum for over 20 years - I asked him what we have learnt about Hornedjitef since he came to the British Museum:
它包括一个巨大的黑色人形棺套,一个精心装饰的内棺,以及木乃伊本身。我们对霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)的了解均来自这套物品。你可以说霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)就是他自己的一部历史文献,不断地泄露着自己的秘密。我的同事约翰∙泰勒(John Taylor)从事博物馆的木乃伊研究已逾20年,我询问他自霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)被移驾到博物馆以来,我们了解到了哪些知识:

'When he arrived at the Museum in 1835, the hieroglyphic script had only just been deciphered, so the first step forward was to read all the inscriptions on his coffins, which told us who he was, what his job was, and something about the religious background that he knew.'
“1835年Hornedjitef来到博物馆时,象形文字刚刚破译,所以第一步就是阅读棺椁上记录着他身份、职位以及宗教信仰的文字。”

He was a priest in the Temple of Karnak around 250 BC. Like all Egyptians, he believed that if his body was preserved, he would live beyond death, but before reaching the afterlife, he would have to undertake a hazardous journey, for which he needed to prepare with the utmost care.
 公元前250年左右,霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)是卡纳克(Karnak)神庙的一位牧师。像他的同胞一样,他相信如果尸体保存下来,他将超越死亡,但在转世前,他必须经历一段危机四伏的长途跋涉,因此他小心翼翼地做好了准备工作。

So he took with him charms, amulets and spells for every eventuality. On the lid of his inner coffin, he even had painted a map of the heavens stretched out above him as an aid to navigation. Hornedjitef has, in fact, commissioned his own personal firmament and time-machine. This elaborate coffin will let him travel through both time and space, and all this meticulous preparation on his part has allowed us to travel in the opposite direction, back to him and to his world.
他随身携带着吉祥物、护身符和咒语以防不测,甚至绘制了一幅蔓延在内棺棺盖上的天体图作为指引。事实上,他已经委托技师制作了自己的时空机器。他精雕细琢的棺材将引领他穿越时空,而他一丝不苟的准备将带领我们追溯时光,故地重游。

'In the last 20 years, there have been huge steps forward in ways of gathering information. So we're now looking at the condition of the bodies non-invasively, just by scanning them. We can examine the teeth in great detail, look at the wear and the dental disease that they suffered from, we can look at the bones, we can see now that Hornedjitef had arthritis in his back which must have been very painful for him.' (John Taylor)
“近20年,搜集信息的技巧突飞猛进。现在我们仅利用扫描这种平和的方式就可以观察尸体的状况。我们能够非常细致地检查牙齿的磨损情况和疾病,我们还能看到骨骼。我们发现霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)患有脊椎疾病,他当时一定觉得很疼。”——约翰∙泰勒(John Taylor)

But the scientific advances of the last couple of decades have allowed us to find out about a great deal more than Hornedjitef's bad back. If the words on his coffin tell us about his place in society and what that society believed about life after death, the new scientific techniques let us go one stage further - to analyse the materials with which mummies and coffins were made, and to see how Egypt was connected to the world round about it.
 然而,近几十年的科学进展允许我们发现比霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)的脊椎疾病更有价值的东西。棺材上的文字告诉我们他的社会地位和当时的社会信仰,新科技则使我们能进一步分析制作木乃伊和棺材的原材料以及埃及和周边世界的联系。

'But we can also look at substances that are being used in mummification, we can test them, we can look at the chemical composition of them to find out what materials were being used - maybe now we can look at where they were coming from. We can compare these chemical make-ups with substances found in different parts of the Mediterranean, and begin to reconstruct the trading networks that supplied these things to Egypt.
“我们还可以着眼于制作木乃伊所使用的化学物质,我们可以通过检测化学成分确定原料种类,发现人们采用了哪些种原料,也许现在我们还可以着眼于原料产地。我们可以拿这些化学成分与地中海不同区域发现的物质做对比,重新构建向埃及提供这些物资的贸易网络。

Some of the mummies have bitumen -the black tarry substance -on the surface and, by analysing the composition, it's possible to track it to its source - some of it we know came from the Dead Sea. So, all of this now is filling in these gaps which the texts don't really tell us about.' (John Taylor)
有些木乃伊表面含有沥青,即一种黑色的柏油物质,我们可以通过化学成分分析追溯到它的发源地——我们已经知道有些来自死海地区。因此,这些填补了文字信息的空白。”——约翰∙泰勒(John Taylor)

And of course it's not just Hornedjitef's mummy case that's telling us more and more. All the objects we'll be looking at in this series are releasing new information as scholars find new ways of examining them.
当然,向我们泄露更多信息的不止霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)木乃伊,我们在这个系列中探讨的所有展品,都在随着学者们检测方法的更新,向我们揭示出新的信息。

Most of the material that Hornedjitef had with him in his coffin was designed to guide him through the great journey to the afterlife, with star-maps and spells to help him overcome all foreseeable difficulties. The one thing his star-map certainly did not predict, was that he might ultimately wind up at the British Museum; let's face it, Bloomsbury might have been a bit of a disappointment to him!
霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)携带在棺材中的大多数物品都是用来在漫长旅程中指引他到达来世的,星图和咒语将帮助他克服所有可预见的劫难。然而,他的星图并未预测出的是,他也许会在大英博物馆终了此生。让我们勇敢面对这个事实吧,虽然布鲁姆伯利(Bloomsbury)难免对他有些失望!

But, should he and his possessions be here anyway? Questions like this crop up frequently -where do things from the past belong now? Should everything be exhibited where it was originally made? I'll be coming back to these questions at various points in the programmes. But I asked the Egyptian writer Ahdaf Souief how she felt about seeing so many Egyptian antiquities so far from home:
但是,他和他的财产应该陈列在这里吗?这样的问题经常出现:这些古董属于哪里?它们是否应陈列在发源地?在这一系列节目中,我会时常回到这些问题。我问埃及作家阿达芙∙苏耶夫(Ahdaf Souief),看到大量的埃及展品“背井离乡”,她感觉如何:

'Ultimately it's probably no bad thing to have Egyptian obelisks and stones and statues sprinkled all over the world. It reminds us of ages of colonialism, yes, but it also reminds the world of our common heritage.' It's that idea of a common heritage that's become more and more apparent and more important to me, the longer I spend working in the British Museum. Personally, I think it's never been more important than now to think about the history of the world as one shared story.
“从根本上说,也许埃及方尖碑、石碑及雕塑流落于世界各地不是件坏事。这一事实虽然不断提醒我们埃及长达几个世纪的殖民史,但也同时提醒世界这些古董是人类的共同财产。”在大英博物馆工作的时间越长,我越能感受到“人类共同财产”这一概念的明确性和重要性。我个人认为,当前最重要的就是将世界历史看做一部全人类共同参与的历史。

'If I could decree a universal education programme, I would make every child in the world learn a brief history of the entire world that focused on the common ground. It would examine how people perceive their relationship to each other, to the planet, and to the universe, and it would see human history as a kind of ongoing joint project, where one lot of people picked up where another had left off.' (Ahdaf Soueif)
“如果我可以开展一场全民教育活动,我将让世界上的每个孩子学习以共同基础为重点的世界简史,探究人类如何感知自己同他人、地球和宇宙的关系。人类的历史将被视为一项联合,互补,持续不断的伟大工程。”——阿达芙∙苏耶夫(Ahdaf Soueif)

I started this programme with the sound of a star whose explosion was seen across half the world around 1066. But the story of people making things began nearly two million years ago. And once again, the radio telescope can let us tune in to the echo of another dying star that those ancestors, nearly two million years ago, would have been able to see - but at this point all our ancestors lived in Africa.
节目开始时,我们播放了一颗恒星发出的声音,半个地球的人于1066年左右见证了它的大爆炸。然而,人类造物的故事始于近200万年前。通过无线电天文望远镜,我们再次听到了另一颗即将陨落的恒星的回响,而200万年前,我们的祖先能用肉眼观察到它,但当时,我们所有人的祖先都生活在非洲大陆。

If at that moment, 1.8 million years ago, you had been gazing up at the exploding star from the Rift Valley of East Africa, you might well have heard the sound of the earliest human hands, creating the oldest known humanly made 'thing'. Those hands were shaping stone tools; tools that represent the first step on the great journey of shaping our world. For me, it's making 'things' and then coming to depend on 'things' that sets us apart from all other animals and, ultimately, turns us into the humans we are today. It's one of those very first stone tools that I'm going to be looking at in the next programme.
如果180万年前的那一刻,你正立于东非大裂谷仰望着那颗爆炸的恒星,也许你还能听到初民用双手创造已知的最古老的“人造物”的声响。那双手在塑造石质工具,它们象征着人类改造世界伟大征程的第一步。我认为,正是制作物品和依赖物品把我们同动物区别开来,并最终使我们进化成今天的人类。下期节目我要介绍的正是一件初民时期的石质工具。

小编补充:

The Director of the British Museum, Neil MacGregor, retells the history of human development from the first stone axe to the credit card, using 100 selected objects from the Museum.
大英博物馆馆长尼尔∙麦克∙格雷戈尔(NeilMacGregor)通过精选的100件展品,向我们重述了人类由石斧头到信用卡的进化史。

At the age of eight, Neil visited the British Museum for the first time and came face to face with an object that fascinated and intrigued him ever since, an Egyptian mummy. Hornedjitef was a priest who died around 2,250 years ago, and he designed a coffin that, he believed, would help him navigate his way to the afterlife. Little did he know that this afterlife would be as a museum exhibit in London. This ornate coffin holds secrets to the understanding of his religion, society and Egypt's connections to the rest of the world.
八岁的尼尔(Neil)第一次参观大英博物馆时,便直面一件让他极为着迷和好奇的展品——一个埃及木乃伊。2,250年前去世的霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)曾是一位牧师,他设计了一副自认为能引导他到达来世的棺椁。他并未预测到他的来生将是伦敦博物馆的一件展品。那些关于他的宗教,社会以及埃及同世界的联系的秘密就尘封在他华丽的棺材里。

Neil tells the story of Hornedjitef's mummy case with contributions from egyptologist John Taylor, Egyptian author Ahdaf Soueif and Indian economist and Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen.
尼尔(Neil)协同埃及学学者约翰∙泰勒(John Taylor),埃及作家阿达芙∙苏耶夫(Ahdaf Soueif),以及印度经济学家、诺贝尔奖得主阿玛蒂亚∙森(Amartya Sen),为我们讲述了木乃伊霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)的故事。

This is the mummy of Hornedjitef an Egyptian priest who was buried in a coffin, within a second, outer coffin. Examining his body using CAT scans and X-rays revealed that he suffered from arthritis and osteoporosis suggesting he was a mature man when he died. The embalmers have placed four packages inside his torso, probably his lungs, liver, stomach and intestines. He lived over a thousand years after Tutankhamun and Ramesses the Great at a time when Egypt was ruled by Greek kings.
霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)是一位埃及牧师。这就是他的木乃伊,装在一副棺椁(棺椁是两个棺材套在一起,内棺称“棺”,棺套称“椁”,即所谓“内棺外椁”——译者注)里。电脑轴向断层扫描和X放射线的检查结果表明他生前患有关节炎和骨质疏松症,这暗示了他死时已成年。制作木乃伊的技师在他的身体里放置了四套小包裹,大概分布于他的肺、肝、胃及肠内。他生于法老图坦卡蒙(Tutankhamun)和法老拉美西斯(Ramesses)二世之后的1000多年,正值埃及臣服于希腊城邦邦主的统治时期。

Why did the Egyptians mummify their dead?
埃及人为什么要将死尸制成木乃伊呢?

When ancient Egyptians like Hornedjitef died they believed they were setting off on a journey from this world to the afterlife. The process of mummification, spells and elaborate coffins enabled them to travel to the next world. This coffin is decorated with images of gods and extracts from the Egyptian Book of the Dead. A figure of the sky goddess Nut is painted on the interior of this coffin. This symbolically locates Hornedjitef in the womb of the goddess, ready to experience rebirth.
就像霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)一样,古埃及人认为人死后便开始了一段从现世超度到来世的漫长旅程。干尸制作,咒语以及精雕细琢的棺椁能将他们超度到来世。棺材上装饰着神的形象以及《埃及亡灵书》中的片段。棺材内部绘有天空之神努特(Nut),象征着霍尼杰提夫(Hornedjitef)位于天空之神的子宫等待重生。

打开APP阅读全文