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BBC: 如何通过训练 让大脑变得更聪明?

Brain training

如何训练大脑?

Our brain is probably the most important organ in our body. It's an incredibly complex thing that helps us think, speak, feel and move. It's no wonder we need to look after it and just like the rest of our body, we need to keep it exercised to keep it healthy.

大脑可能是我们最重要的身体器官了。它极其复杂,能帮助我们思考,说话,感觉并行动。这也是为什么我们要像照顾其它身体器官一样照顾好它,我们需要动脑来保持它的健康。

Our brain is made up of 86 billion neurons - or nerve cells - but as we get older some of these slowly die off. In extreme cases, nerve cells in different areas of the brain become damaged and eventually die causing a condition called dementia where a person is unable to perform certain mental functions.

我们的大脑由860亿个神经元-或者说神经细胞组成,但这些神经细胞会随着我们年龄的增长而逐渐消亡。 极端情况下,大脑不同部位的神经细胞受损并最终消亡,这就是痴呆症的起因。患了痴呆症的人某些行为能力会受限。

It's a good idea to train our brain by learning ways to increase our memory or intelligence. I like to stretch my brain by doing a crossword or a Sudoku puzzle. There's also evidence that learning a second language can boost your brainpower. Dr Catherine Loveday, who's a neuropsychologist, thinks being bilingual is a protective factor for the brain because it "involves a lot of switchings and that seems to exercise the sort of executive parts of our brain. Those parts of the brain are kind of stronger and fitter when it comes to resisting some kind of damage from a stroke."

通过学习增强记忆和智力的方法来训练我们的大脑是个不错的想法。我喜欢通过玩填字游戏和益智游戏锻炼大脑。另外,经过证实,学习外语也能促进脑力发展。神经心理学家凯瑟琳洛弗迪博士认为,会两种语言能保护大脑,因为“这其中包含了很多的转换,这能使我们大脑的执行部位得到锻炼。而这些部位更有效也更适合抵御因中风而导致的某些细胞损伤。”

But if you're not bilingual there are other ways to stretch your brain: If you're right handed, doing tasks like brushing your teeth with your left hand will improve your brain - or something I find very challenging, memorising a list of words, such as a shopping list.

但除了学习双语外还有别的方法也能锻炼大脑。如果你习惯用右手,那平时可以用左手去做一些事,比如刷牙。这能有助于开发大脑——或者做一些具有挑战性的事,比如记忆购物单这种一连串的清单。

The main aim of trying these skills is to stimulate the brain. This is something Dr. Loveday describes as building up our cognitive reserve - that's building up extra abilities to help protect the brain against declining memory or thinking. She says "even if people take up languages or take up other things later in life it will give them a degree of protection." As I get older, that has put my mind at rest!

做这些的主要目的刺激大脑,也就是洛弗迪博士所说的建立我们的认知储备——这是一种能防止记忆力或思考能力下降的额外能力。她表示:“即使人们以后在生活中学习语言或者学习其他东西,这能提供一定程度的保护。”就算我老了,我也能放心!

The best bit of research I have read is that eating chocolate may enhance our ability to acquire and utilise knowledge - that's our cognitive performance. It may not be healthy for the rest of my body but at least it might make me a brain box! What do you think?

我看过的最好玩的研究是说吃巧克力能提高我们获取和运用知识的能力——也就是我们的认知能力。这可能对我其他器官不太好,但至少能让我变聪明!你们觉得呢?

 

词汇表

organ

器官

neurons

神经元

nerve cells

神经细胞

dementia

痴呆症、失智症

mental functions

脑功能

intelligence

智力

crossword

填字游戏

brainpower

脑力,智力

neuropsychologist

神经心理学家

bilingual

(能使用)两种语言的,双语的

executive

执行指令的

resisting

抵抗,抵御

stroke

中风

stimulate

促进(身体某部位)的功能

challenging

有挑战性的

cognitive reserve

认知储备

abilities

能力

put my mind at rest

让我放心了

enhance

提高,增强

utilise

利用,使用

cognitive performance

认知表现,认知能力

a brain box

非常聪明的人

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