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挪威研究发现 人类平均IQ值在下降

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Norwegian Study: IQ Scores Dropped for Decades

挪威研究发现 人类平均IQ值在下降

A major study carried out in Norway suggests IQ scores among men there have been falling since the mid-1970s.

在挪威进行的一项大型研究表明,自二十世纪七十年代中期以来,男性智力都在下降。

The study involved more than 700,000 men born to Norwegian couples between 1962 and 1991. The research was carried out by Oslo's Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research. Results were published last week in the U.S.-based scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

这项研究涉及70多万名出生于1962到1991之间、父母为挪威人的男性。这项研究是由奥斯陆的拉格纳·弗里希经济研究中心进行的。结果于上周发表在美国的科学期刊《美国国家科学院院刊》上。

The men were given tests around age 18 to measure IQ - or intelligence quotient - as part of required military service in Norway. IQ tests are designed to measure intelligence based on areas such as vocabulary knowledge, verbal and non-verbal reasoning skills, and working memory.

研究对象均在18岁左右接受了智商测试,或者叫智力值,智商测试是挪威征兵要求的一部分。智商测试的目的是基于词汇知识、语言和非语言推理能力以及工作记忆等方面来衡量一个人的智力。

In the Norwegian study, results showed the average IQ score increased about three percent for men born between 1962 and 1975 - from 99.5 to 102.3.

在挪威的研究中,研究结果显示在1962和1975之间出生的男性平均智商分数提高了3%,从99.5分上升到102.3分。

But the scores began dropping for men born after 1975. By 1989, the average IQ score had returned to 99.4.

但1975年以后出生的男性的智商分数开始下降。到1989年,平均智商分数又掉回到99.4分。

The study is related to something known as the Flynn effect. This is the idea that if the same IQ tests are given to people born at different points in time, the scores will generally rise.

这项研究与被称为“弗林效应”的理论有关。弗林效应是一个概念,其认为对出生于不同时间点的人进行智商测试,分数一般会上升。

Ole Rogeberg is with the Frisch Center and was a lead researcher on the study. He told VOA the Flynn effect showed a clear increase in IQ scores during the 20th century throughout the Western world. Researchers found the IQ increases during this time period happened too fast to be related to genetics. They said the higher scores were instead caused by environmental factors. Among possible factors were better teaching and learning methods, improvements in test-taking skills and healthier eating.

奥勒·罗杰伯格也在弗里施中心,他是该项研究的主要研究员。他告诉美国之音,弗林效应显示,在二十世纪整个西方世界的智商分数都明显上升。研究人员发现,在这段时间内,智商得分上升得太快,这不太可能是遗传学(基因进化)引起的。他们表示,更高的得分反而是由环境因素引起的,这些因素可能包括更好的教学和学习方法、应试技能的提高以及(摄取)更健康的饮食。

Rogeberg said that in the new study, he wanted to examine possible causes for the steady drop in IQ scores. To rule out genetics, he attempted to find similarities between brothers.

罗杰伯格说,在新的研究中,他想研究智商分数稳步下降的大致原因。为了排除是遗传学(决定智商得分)的可能性,他试图在兄弟之间找到相似之处。

Because on average, the genes that the first born and the second born and the third born get, they will be relatively similar. There's no reason to expect that one sibling gets better genes just because he's the first or second child.

“因为平均来说,老大、老二和老三得到的基因是基本相似的。没道理去假定就因为一个姊妹是第一个或者第二个出生的孩子,他(她)就会得到更好的基因。”

He concluded that external factors probably influenced the scores more than genetics. However, he added that the study did not provide any information about specific kinds of environmental causes for the lower IQ scores. But he said researchers are considering a number of theories.

他得出的结论是外在隐私可能比遗传学更影响智商。不过,他补充道,对于哪种特定环境因素会决定智商得分低,这项研究没有提供任何信息。但他表示,研究人员正在考虑很多种理论。

It may be due to changes in the educational system or that it reflects a change in the media environment - if people used to read books more, but now they're watching television more or going on the internet more.

“这可能是由于教育系统的变化或者也反映了媒体环境的变化,因为以前大家会读书多些,但如今,大家更多的是在看电视或上网。”

Rogeberg looks forward to results of additional studies that can support his findings. He says more research is needed to help explain all the reasons behind changes in IQ scores.

罗杰伯格期待进一步研究的结果可以论证他的判断。他说,需要更多的研究来帮助解释智商得分变化背后的种种原因。

It's difficult to compare the results across time, and whether it actually reflects a change in some underlying intelligence or whether it reflects differences in how we have been trained to use our intelligence to solve different kinds of tasks.

“很难跨越时间去对结果进行比较,还有到底是在表明某些潜在智力发生了变化,还是我们在解决不同问题方面所接受的教育不同了呢?”

In any case, Rogeberg says he believes the reasoning and critical thinking skills measured by intelligence tests will always be important. He notes that humans will still need to process information, even as technology and artificial intelligence become a bigger part of people's lives.

无论如何,罗杰伯格表示,他坚信智力测试所衡量的推理能力和批判性思考能力会永远如此重要。他指出,即使技术和人工智能在人类生活中占更大比重,但人类仍然能需要处理信息。

You have to be able to reason your way through the world as you live it, he said. "And I don't think these skills are going to lose their relevance. But the way they are relevant might change."

他说:“人生在世,你必须有能力思考自己在世上的生存方式。我认为这些能力还是会有意义。但是关联的方式可能会发生改变。”

I'm Bryan Lynn.

我是布莱恩. 林恩。

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