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名师答疑:lend和borrow的用法详解

End Your Confusion about Borrow and Lend

名师答疑:借入和借出

This week we answer a question we received in an email from Tina. She writes:

本周我们回复一封来自蒂娜的邮件中的一个问题。她写道:

Question:

提问:

I just want to know how to use the words "borrow" and "lend" in a situation. Is it correct to say, "Could you lend me a pen?" or " Can I borrow your pen?" Thank you very much.

我想要知道在具体状况下如何使用“borrow”和“lend”。“你能借给我一支钢笔吗?”或者“我可以借下你的钢笔吗?”这样说对吗?非常感谢!

Answer:

回复:

These two words are a source of trouble for many English learners. The reason? They have about the same meaning, but each word's action goes in different directions.

这两个词是许多英语学习者的烦恼之源。原因在哪呢?它们的意思大致相同,但每个词代表的作用方向不同。

Borrow means to take something from another person, knowing you will give it back to them.

Borrow(借入)是指从别人那里拿来某物,知道你会把它还回去。

Lend means to give something to another person expecting to get it back.

Lend(借出)是指把某物给另一个人,并希望把它收回来。

So the sentences you asked about are both correct. Your choice of "borrow" or "lend" depends on which direction is more important to you.

所以你问到的句子都是正确的,选择borrow还是lend取决于哪个方向更偏向于你。

Imagine yourself in the middle of the picture. Anything you "borrow" moves toward you. Things you "lend" go away from you.

假设你是这幅图片中间的那个人。你借入的东西是朝你而来,你借出的东西是离你而去。

Notice that the prepositions that often follow the verbs are different. We borrow from someone, but we lend to someone.

请注意,这些动词后面跟的介词是不一样的。我们从某人那里借入(borrow from),但是我们是把某物借出给(lend to)某人。

Let's say you and I go shopping, Tina. I need to sign my name on a receipt, but I do not have a pen. So I ask you, "Can I borrow a pen?" I chose "borrow" because I am thinking of the action as it relates to me. You are a good friend, so you lend me the pen. I forget it is yours and I put it in my bag.

蒂娜,假设你跟我去购物。我需要在收据上签名,但是没带笔。所以我问你:“我可以跟你借支笔吗?”我用了borrow,因为我想的这个动作是跟我有关。你很好,所以你把笔借给我。我忘了笔是你的,把它放进了我的包里。

Later, we meet a good friend and she asks for your email address. You search in your bag, but – no pen! You think, "I lent Jill my pen. And she didn't give it back to me." Now you are thinking of the action that you did. So, you can ask me, "Jill, do you remember that pen I lent you? I need it now."

随后,我们遇见了一位好友,她要你的电子邮件地址。你在包里找,但是找不到笔。你就想:“我把笔借给了吉尔,她没有还给我。”这时候你想的是你做的动作。所以,你可以问我:“吉尔,你还记得我借给你的笔吗?现在我要用了。”

I feel bad that I forgot to return the pen. I say, "Sorry, Tina! I forgot that I borrowed it. Here you are!"

我很抱歉忘了还笔了。我说:“对不起,我忘了我借笔了。还你!”

Be careful: personal pronouns like me, you, him and others never come after the verb "borrow," but it is correct to use them after "lend," as in, "Lend me a dollar for some ice cream."

注意:me、you、him以及others等人称代词不能跟到borrow后面,但是可以跟在lend后面。就像这句:“借我一块钱买冰激凌。”

I hope this helps you understand "lend" and "borrow."

希望这些能够帮助你理解lend 和borrow。

And that's Ask a Teacher!

以上就是本期名师答疑的全部内容。

I'm Jill Robbins.

我是吉尔·罗宾斯。

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