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新视野大学英语读写教程第二册 unit6-a

《新视野大学英语》是国务院批准的教育部“面向21世纪振兴行动计划”的重点工程“新世纪网络课程建设工程”项目系列教材之一。 由国家级名师上海交通大学郑树棠教授担任总策划和教材总主编,清华大学、上海交通大学和东北大学等全国十余所大学几十名资深教授和中青年骨干教师共同设计、编写和制作的教育部普通高等教育“十五”国家级规划教材,教育部大学英语推荐教材。

Unit 6

Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening

Please listen to a short passage carefully and prepare to answer some questions.

Second Listening

Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions with your own experiences.

1) What are some of the ways names can make a difference?

2) In what way can teachers be guilty of name prejudice?

3) What does the writer suggest you do if your name does not suit you?

As His Name Is, So Is He!

For her first twenty-four years, she'd been known as Debbie — a name that didn't suit her good looks and elegant manner. "My name has always made me think I should be a cook," she complained. "I just don't feel like a Debbie."

One day, while filling out an application form for a publishing job, the young woman impulsively substituted her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. "That was the smartest thing I ever did," she says now. "As soon as I stopped calling myself Debbie, I felt more comfortable with myself... and other people started to take me more seriously." Two years after her successful job interview, the former waitress is now a successful magazine editor. Friends and associates call her Lynne.

Naturally, the name change didn't cause Debbie/Lynne's professional achievement — but it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. Social scientists say that what you're called can affect your life. Throughout history, names have not merely identified people but also described them. " … As his name is, so is he..." says the Bible, and Webster's Dictionary includes the following definition of name: "a word or words expressing some quality considered characteristic or descriptive of a person or a thing, often expressing approval or disapproval." Note well "approval or disapproval". For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or reserve, plainness or charm may be suggested by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you.

Names become attached to specific images, as anyone who's been called "a plain Jane" or "just an average Joe" can show. The latter name particularly bothers me since my name is Joe, which some think makes me more qualified to be a baseball player than, say, an art critic. Yet, despite this disadvantage, I did manage to become an art critic for a time. Even so, one prominent magazine consistently refused to print "Joe" in my by-line, using my first initials, J.S., instead. I suspect that if I were a more refined Arthur or Adrian, the name would have appeared complete.

Of course, names with a positive sense can work for you, even encourage new acquaintances. A recent survey showed that American men thought Susan to be the most attractive female name, while women believed Richard and David were the most attractive for men. One woman I know turned down a blind date with a man named Harry because "he sounded dull". Several evenings later, she came up to me at a party, pressing for an introduction to a very impressive man; they'd been exchanging glances all evening. "Oh," I said. "You mean Harry." She was ill at ease.

Though most of us would like to think ourselves free from such prejudiced notions, we're all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. Confess: Wouldn't you be surprised to meet a carpenter named Nigel? A physicist called Bertha? A Pope Mel? Often, we project name-based stereotypes on people, as one woman friend discovered while taking charge of a nursery - school's group of four-year olds. "There I was, trying to get a little active boy named Julian to sit quietly and read a book — and pushing a thoughtful creature named Rory to play ball. I had their personalities confused because of their names!"

Apparently, such prejudices can affect classroom achievement as well. In a study conducted by Herbert Harari of San Diego State University, and John McDavid of Georgia State University, teachers gave consistently lower grades on essays apparently written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they awarded to the same papers when the writer's names were given as Michael and David. However, teacher prejudice isn't the only source of classroom difference. Dr. Thomas V. Busse and Louisa Seraydarian of Temple University found those girls with names such as Linda, Diane, Barbara, Carol, and Cindy performed better on objectively graded IQ and achievement tests than did girls with less appealing names. (A companion study showed girls' popularity with their peers was also related to the popularity of their names — although the connection was less clear for boys.)

Though your parents probably meant your name to last a lifetime, remember that when they picked it they'd hardly met you, and the hopes and dreams they valued when they chose it may not match yours. If your name no longer seems to fit you, don't despair; you aren't stuck with the label. Movie stars regularly change their names, and with some determination, you can, too.
Words: 752

NEW WORDS

elegant
a. tasteful in appearance or manner 优雅的,文雅的,精致的

application
n. 1. [U, C] official request 申请,请求
2. [U, C] act of putting a theory, discovery, etc. to practical use 应用,使用,运用

substitute
vt. put or use sb./sth. to replace sb./sth. else 代替,替换,代用
vi. act or serve as a replacement 代替,代用
n. [C] a person or thing that replaces, acts for or serves as sb. or sth. else 代理人,代替的人,代用品,代用物

naturally
ad. 1. of course; as might be expected 当然,预料中地
2. by nature 天性,天生

confidence
n. 1. [U] feeling of certainty; trust in one's own ability 信心,自信
2. [U] trust (in sb., in sb.'s ability, or in what is said, reported, etc.) 信赖,信任,相信

self-confidence
n. [U] trust in oneself; trust in one's own abilities 自信

talent
n. 1. [C, U] special or great ability 天才,才能
2. [U] people who have (a) talent 有才干的人,人才

bible
n. 1. [U] (B-) 《圣经》
2. [C] any official book supported by authorities 公认为权威的典籍

definition
n. 1. [C] a statement that gives the exact meaning (of words, etc) 定义,释义
2. [U] clearness of shape, sound, color, etc. 清晰度

characteristic
a. representative 特有的,独特的
n. [C] a special quality 特点,特征

approval
n. [U] feeling or showing or saying that one thinks sth. is good or satisfactory 赞成,同意,批准,认可

disapproval
n. [U] feeling that sth. or sb. is bad or wrong, etc. 反对,不赞成

reserve
n. 1. [U] the habit of not showing one's feelings or thoughts 矜持,拘谨
2. [C, U] thing kept for later use 留待以后用的东西,储备量
vt. 1. keep sth. for a particular purpose or time 保留,留出,储备
2. order (seats, accommodation, etc.) for use by a particular person at a future time 预定或保留(座位、席位),登记

specific
a. 1. detailed and exact 具体的,明确的
2. relating to one particular thing, etc.; not general 特有的,特定的

latter
a. 1. being the second of two people, things or groups mentioned before (两者中的)后者的
2. near to the end of a period 后面的
n. (the~) the second of two things or people already mentioned 后者

qualify
v. have or give (sb.) the qualities, training, etc. that are suitable or necessary (for sth.) (使)具有资格,(使)合格

critic
n. [C] a person who describes and judges the quality of sth., esp. works of art, music, etc.(文学、艺术、音乐)评论家,批评家

prominent
a. 1. important; well-known 重要的;杰出的,显著的,著名的
2. sticking out from a surface 突出的,凸起的

by-line
n. [C] a line at the beginning or end of an article in a newspaper, etc. giving the writer's name (报刊文章首、尾处的)作者署名

refine
vt. 1. make (sb./sth.) more elegant 使文雅,使高尚
2. make pure or improve esp. by removing unwanted material 提炼,精炼

acquaintance
n. 1. [C] a person whom one knows but who is not a close friend 相识的人
2. [U] (often slight) knowledge of sb./sth. 了解

attractive
a. very pleasing in appearance or sound, or causing interest or pleasure 动人的,引人入胜的,富有吸引力的

impressive
a. having a strong effect on sb. 使人印象深刻的

stereotype
vt. form a fixed set of ideas that is generally disapproving about the characteristics of a certain group of people or things 对……形成固定看法
n. [C] an image, idea, character, etc. that has become fixed in a routine form 固定的形象,陈规,老套,旧框框

extent
n. 1. the degree specified 程度
2. [U] length; area; range 长度;面积;范围

confess
v. 1. admit often unwillingly 承认
2. admit that one has done sth. wrong, esp. when what you have done is secret 坦白,供认

carpenter
n. [C] a person whose job is making or repairing wooden things 木匠,木工

physicist
n. [C] an expert in or student of physics 物理学家,研究物理学的人

pope
n. [C] (usu. the P-) (天主教)教皇

nursery
n. 1. [C] a place where children are cared for, usu. while their parents are at work, etc. 托儿所
2. [C] a place where plants and trees are grown 苗圃

thoughtful
a. 1. thinking deeply 深思的,思考的
2. showing care for the need of others 体贴的,关心的,考虑周到的

creature
n. 1. [C] a living being, esp. an animal 生物,动物
2. [C] (often used after an adjective) a person 人

award
vt. give esp. as the result of an official decision 授予,给予
n. [C] sth. awarded 奖金,奖品

objective
a. not influenced by personal feelings; fair 不受个人感情影响的,客观的,公正的
n. [C] a thing aimed at or wished for; purpose 目标,目的

objectively
ad. in an objective manner 客观地,客观上地

IQ
n. [C, U] intelligence quotient, a comparative measure of a person's intelligence 智商

intelligence
n. [U] (good) ability to learn, reason, and understand 智力,智慧,理解力

quotient
n. a number which is the result when one number is divided by another 商数,商

despair
vi. have lost all hope 失望,绝望
n. 1. [U] state of having lost all hope 失望,绝望
2. [C] a person who makes other people give up hope 令人感到不可救药的人

label
n. 1. [C] a descriptive word or words applied to a person, group, etc. (用以形容人、团体等的)称号,外号
2. [C] a piece of paper, cloth, metal, etc. on or beside an object and describing its nature, name, owner, etc. 标签,签条
vt. 1. describe sb./sth. 把……称为
2. put a label or labels on sth. 把标签贴在……上,用标签标明

determination
n. 1. [U] firmness of objective 决心,坚定,决断力
2. [U] exact fixing (of sth.); deciding 决定,确定

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

fill out
add what is necessary to make sth. complete 填写

for better or worse
whether the result is good or bad 不管结果好坏

convey to
make (ideas, feelings, etc.) known to another person 表达(思想、感情);转达

attach sth. to sth.
connect sth. with sth. 使与……相关联

even so
in spite of that 虽然这样,然而,不过

turn down
refuse to consider 拒绝,驳回

blind date
arrangement to meet made between a man and a woman who have not met each other before (由第三方安排的)男女间初次见面

come up to
move towards 走近,移近

press for sth.
make repeated and demanding request for sth. 反复请求,紧急请求

be ill at ease
uncomfortable; embarrassed 不自在;困窘
free from
not influenced or damaged by sth. dangerous 不具……的,未受危险伤害的

be guilty of
be to blame for sth. 对……有罪责

take charge of
take control of; become responsible for 负责管理;对……负责

stick with sth.
keep staying with sth., cannot get rid of sth. 坚持;无法摆脱

PROPER NAMES

Debbie
戴比

Lynne
林恩

Webster
韦伯斯特

Joe

Adrian
艾德里安

Susan
苏珊

Harry
哈里

Nigel
奈杰尔

Bertha
伯莎

Pope Mel
梅尔教皇

Julian
朱利安

Rory
罗里

Herbert Harari
赫伯特·哈拉里

San Diego
圣迭戈(美国加利福尼亚州西南部港市)

John McDavid
约翰·麦克戴维

Elmer
埃尔默

Hubert
休伯特

Michael
迈克尔

Thomas V. Busse
托马斯·V·布塞

Louisa Seraydarian
路易莎·瑟拉里达里安

Linda
琳达

Diane
黛安

Barbara
芭芭拉

Carol
卡罗尔

Cindy
辛迪



 

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