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新视野大学英语读写教程第二册 unit7-b

《新视野大学英语》是国务院批准的教育部“面向21世纪振兴行动计划”的重点工程“新世纪网络课程建设工程”项目系列教材之一。 由国家级名师上海交通大学郑树棠教授担任总策划和教材总主编,清华大学、上海交通大学和东北大学等全国十余所大学几十名资深教授和中青年骨干教师共同设计、编写和制作的教育部普通高等教育“十五”国家级规划教材,教育部大学英语推荐教材。

Section B

Are You a Workaholic?

There's a big distinction between working hard and being a workaholic.

Working hard involves being organized, focused, getting a lot of work done, knowing when to stop, and having a life other than work. Workaholics, on the other hand, are often disorganized, always find reasons for working more, feel lost without work to do, hide from problems through work, don't know how or when to relax, bring work home from the office, can't communicate well with fellow workers and family members, and have unbalanced, one-dimensional lives.

Workaholics, like those who are constantly drunk, suffer from a controlling habit, usually defined as compelling behavior despite negative consequences. They are sometimes pushed into their habit by their work beliefs, by workaholic role models, and by a work system that automatically sanctions workaholism. Despite lip service to the contrary ("a balanced employee is a productive employee"), most employers want loyal employees who work longer hours, rewarding them with higher pay and better benefits. In many companies, workers unwilling to burn the midnight oil are at risk. Certainly, they hazard their jobs by working normal hours. Americans tend to become trapped in a working and spending consumption mode, driven by merchants, that leads them to rack up their expectations.

According to some psychology counselors, workaholism can be both good and bad for us. It can fuel a sense of self-worth and accomplishment. And we get paid for it and praised for it, which produces good feelings we may not necessarily be able to attain in other parts of our lives.

Workaholism is a problem that has been evident since the Stone Age — whenever people have sought to escape other parts of their lives through work. Our parents and grandparents worked very hard, but theirs was more of a physical work. Ours has more stress in it, especially in these days of rising competition and shrinking companies. The companies are getting smaller and smaller because of bleak economic conditions and employees fear for their jobs — so they work longer hours. We seem to be more in the fast lane than ever before.

Psychology counselors have noticed three types of workaholics:

·People with high energy that needs discharging.

·Very competitive people who have a strong need to prove themselves and tie their self-worth to their work.

·People who use work to escape from something, such as grief, frustration or guilt. They keep themselves so busy that they have no time or energy to deal with their real problems.

These three types generally have the same traits. They can't stand not being active. They find it hard to go on vacation. They're more comfortable being with fellow workers than with family and friends. They equate self-worth and success with hard work. They'd rather be at work than elsewhere or doing anything else.

Workaholics presumably view their work habits through denial and rationalization. They deny the excessive time they're devoting to work, and they rationalize that their schedule is for the family and essential to being promoted. They also tend to view themselves and their work as indispensable and their working long hours as commitment to the company. Of course there is nothing wrong with their commitment, ambition and durable energy. But what is wrong is that these things often come in at a high price to their health and the welfare of their families.

As workaholics tend to put all their eggs in one basket, their job, they can be helped by spreading these eggs into several baskets. Psychology counselors, for example, often help these people by asking about the hobbies they enjoyed in the past and don't have any more now. That kind of question can often get them started toward regaining more of a balance in their lives.

To be a healthy person physically and psychologically, one should lead a balanced life, summarize some psychology experts. Those little things — reading mystery novels, playing volleyball, spending time with family and friends, playing with the dog, going fishing — may seem relatively insignificant means to a healthy end. They can be at least as rewarding as work.
Words: 683

NEW WORDS

workaholic
n. [C] a person who works without stop 闲不下来的人,工作狂

dimension
n. 1. [C] a factor 方面,特点
2. [C, U] measures for length, width, etc. 尺度(宽,长,厚,高)

dimensional
a. having the stated number of dimensions (构成复合词的)有……维的,……方面的

constant
a. 1. going on all the time; happening again and again 经常的,永恒的,不断的
2. unchanging; fixed 不变的,固定的

constantly
ad. continuously 经常地,不断地

drunk
a. 1. excited by alcoholic drink (酒)醉的
2. (with) behaving in a strange, often unpleasant way (because of the excitement of sth.) 陶醉(于)

consequence
n. 1. [C] sth. that is a result or effect of sth. else 结果,结局,影响
2. [U] importance 重要性

system
n. 1. [C] an ordered set of ideas, methods, or ways of working 制度,体制;一套(工作)方法
2. [C] a group of things or parts working together as a whole 系统,体系

sanction
vt. give one's approval for (sth.); allow 批准,认可
n. 1. [U] approval for an action, a change, etc. 批准,认可
2. [C] a reason that stops people going against laws, rules, etc. 约束力,约束因素

workaholism
n. [U] state of being workaholic 醉心工作,迷恋工作

employee
n. [C] a person who works for a company in return for money 雇员,被雇佣的人

employer
n. [C] a person or company that employs others 雇主

loyal
a. true to sb./sth. 忠诚的,忠贞的

hazard
vt. 1. subject (sth.) to danger; risk 使遭受危险,冒险
2. take a risk to make or suggest 冒险做出;大胆提出
n. [C] danger; risk 危险;风险

trap
vt. 1. keep (sb.) in a place from which he wants to move but cannot 使陷于困境,使落入圈套,使受限制
2. catch by a trick 设陷阱捕捉
n. 1. [C] a device or hole for catching animals or people and preventing their escape 陷阱,捕捉机
2. [C] a dangerous or unpleasant situation which you have got into and from which it is difficult or impossible to escape 圈套,诡计

consumption
n. 1. [U] using up of food, energy, resource, etc. 消耗,消费
2. [U] the amount used or eaten 消费量,消耗量

mode
n. [C] a way or manner in which sth. is done 方法,方式

merchant
n. [C] a businessman; a trader 商人

rack
vt. cause physical or mental pain, or trouble 使(肉体或精神)受痛苦,使受折磨,给……造成麻烦(此词在文中与up连用,意义为"积累"。)

necessarily
ad. as a sure result 必然地,必定地

evident
a. obvious (to the eye or mind); clear 明显的,显然的,清楚的 competition
n. [U, C] a state or an activity in which people compete 竞争

lane
n. 1. [C] a strip of road marked out for single line of traffic 车道
2. [C] a narrow road in the countryside or in a town 小路,小巷

discharge
vt. 1. give or send out 放出,流出
2. give official sanction for sb. to leave 放行,让……离去
vi. give or send out 排出,流出
n. [U, C] sth. that is discharged 排出物,流出物

competitive
a. 1. (of people) having a strong wish to win (指人)有强烈竞争意识的,好胜心强的
2. of, based on, or decided by competition 竞争的,取决于竞争的

grief
n. 1. [U] deep or violent sad feeling 悲伤,忧伤,悲恸
2. [C] sth. causing such feelings 伤心的事,令人悲伤的事

trait
n. [C] a characteristic 品质,特点

equate
vt. consider as the same; connect in mind 等同,同等对待

equation
n. 1. [C] a statement that two expressions are equal 方程式,等式
2. [C] the action of making equal or regarding as equal 等同

presumably
ad. it may be supposed that 推测起来,大概,可能

denial
n. 1. [C] a statement that sth. is not true 否认,否定
2. the act or an example of refusing to give or accept 拒绝给予,拒绝接受

rational
a. 1. not foolish; having common sense; reasonable 合理的,明智的
2. showing clear thought 理智的,理性的

rationalize
vt. provide an explanation for 阐述理由,说明理由,自圆其说

rationalization
n. [U, C] the action of providing an explanation 阐述理由,说明理由

deny
vt. 1. declare untrue; refuse to accept as a fact 否认,不承认
2. refuse to give or allow 拒绝,不给

schedule
n. 1. [C] a program of work to be done 进度表,程序表
2. [C] a timetable 时间表,时刻表
vt. arrange sth. for a certain time 安排,排定

indispensable
a. too important or too useful to be without 必不可少的,不可或缺的,绝对必要的

ambition
n. 1. [C, U] strong desire for success, power or money 野心,雄心,抱负
2. [C] the object of a desire(具体的)抱负目标

durable
a. lasting for a long time 耐用的,持久的

welfare
n. [U] physical and mental health and happiness, esp. of a person(尤指人的)幸福,福利,安康

summarize
vt. make a brief statement of the main points 概述

volleyball
n. [U] 排球,排球运动

means
n. 1. a method or way (of doing sth.) 方法,途径
2. (pl.) money that lets you buy things 钱财,财力,财富

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

other than
except 除了

on the other hand
as an opposite point 另一方面

suffer from
experience (sth. unpleasant, such as an illness), esp. over a long period of time or habitually 患有(疾病等);为……所苦

to the contrary
indicating or proving the opposite (表示或证明)相反地

burn the midnight oil
study or work until late at night (学习、工作)到深夜,开夜车

at risk
in danger 处于危险之中

tend to do sth.
be likely to behave in a particular way or have a particular characteristic 倾向于,易于,往往会

rack up
increase in number or amount step by step 积累,积聚,逐步增加

the Stone Age
石器时代

fear for
be concerned about sb./sth. 担心,忧虑

tie to
cause to be connected with or dependent on 使联系在一起;使依附于

escape from
get free from; get away from 逃脱,逃避

at work
at the place where one works; doing sth. esp. work 在工作的地方,在工作

devote to
give (one's energy, time, etc.) to sb./sth. 献身于,致力于,专心于

come in
appear; happen 出现,发生

put all one's eggs in one basket
risk everything one has on the success of one plan 孤注一掷



 

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