Please listen to a short passage carefully and prepare to answer some questions.
Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions with your own experiences.
1) Why do you think big countries and big companies offer jobs to people from abroad?
2) One of your friends wants to accept a job overseas. What advice would you give him/her?
3) If a company hires many people from a different country, does it have any responsibilities toward that country? Explain your answer.
Stop Brain Drain
A bill now before Congress would give preferential treatment to foreign students with advanced degrees in science and engineering who want to work in the United States.
To those of us who are immigrants, the bill seems simply to sanction a policy secretly implemented by U.S. industry for nearly four decades — namely, stealing brains from the third world.
In general, the "21st Century Technology Resources and Commercial Leadership Act", which Sen. John McCain brought to the Senate in late 1999, is designed to keep the U.S. high-tech industry on top by filling the need for skilled technology workers. One provision of the bill states that, among non-immigrant visa applicants, the state should give preference to foreign nationals with secondary degrees in math, science, engineering or technology. Such a provision would provide "temporary skilled personnel" in those fields.
During the 1960s and 1970s, politicians in my native country, India, used to wave the slogan "Stop Brain Drain" — a reference to the fact that the cream of India was leaving for the lucrative shores of England and America.
In that post-independence era, when everything foreign was considered contaminated by colonialism, we talked of cottage industries and economic imperialism. We threw Coca-Cola out and invented "Thumbs Up Cola".
But it was also the era of Sputnik, of nuclear power and the green revolution. Every year, on Independence Day, our Prime Minister Nehru spoke of the benefits of science and technology.
Our institutes of technology, built with European and American aid, offered students free room and board, even salary. Indian taxpayers footed the bill in the hope that one day the graduates would help reconstruct the nation.
I was one such student. But studying my textbooks late at night in the library of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), I would dream, not of India, but of America, the land of opportunity. Many students like me, indeed, left during those years, never to return.
So our government set up special programs to tempt foreign graduates. Our leaders saw parallels to the independence movement founded by people like Nehru and Gandhi who, after absorbing Western political thought at institutions like Eton and Oxford, returned home to serve their native land.
But few foreign graduates came home to "pay their pledge", as Nehru had put it. Our leaders had failed to see that the emphasis on symbol manipulation at IIT left little room for social thought and much scope for the greedy outcomes of capital-driven business.
Over the next two decades, IIT graduates — educated at the expense of Indian taxpayers — played a major role in founding California's Silicon Valley. The personal computer revolution and the invention of the Internet made the demand for skilled labor mushroom to such tremendous proportions that even if every American child were to study nothing but science from now on, we would be unable to keep pace with demand in the decades to come.
In other words, the legislation would benefit not immigrants, but American industry which would be crippled without it. In India in the meantime, the entire education system has shifted gears to feed the appetite of the American computer industry. As IIT cannot graduate enough students to fill these needs, every street corner now sports billboards for private academies offering certificates in computer programming.
At a book show in my hometown of Nagpur recently, large crowds of young people examined books on engineering and software.
Comments about "Brain Drain" don't hold much water when every politician has a son or daughter aiming to go abroad.
And why bother rebuilding the nation when the only goal is to abandon it? At the Nagpur book show, for example, the latest American social publications were conspicuous by their absence and India's politically conscious leadership has been replaced by a new generation, riding on the wave of the Internet, making fortunes within a span of years.
This new leadership has abandoned all talk of economic imperialism in favor of market economics. Indians now put flowers around Bill Gates' neck and offer him the kind of reception once offered only to the Queen. And Thumbs Up is a branch of Coca-Cola.
Mid-sized cities like Bangalore are now the Silicon Valleys of India — their workers generate demand for the very products that they produce. But the nation is slowly disintegrating. India's population recently hit 1 billion, but its interior framework in water, transportation and health care is fast falling apart; its citizens breathe air that is dangerously polluted.
India had gone from an agricultural society to the cyber-revolution, without passing through intermediate stages such as the welfare state and the creation of social services.
Perhaps it is time to pass legislation calling for a "Brain Trust". Funded by corporations like Microsoft and Intel which have drained India of its brains for decades, the trust could set up new institutes in India aimed at training students not in symbol manipulation, but in social thought. Such an effort is our only hope of creating the social structure needed in the next century.
n. 1. [C] anything that continuously uses up sb.'s strength,time, money, etc. 不断消耗（力量、时间、金钱）的事
2. [C] a pipe to carry away the unwanted water 排水管（道），下水道
v. (cause to) become dry as water or sth. similar flows off; (cause to) flow away (使)渐渐流干；（使）逐渐流出
n. the highest law-making body e.g. of the U.S. 国会（立法机关，如美国国会）
a. 1. not elementary 高级的，高深的，程度高的
2. highly developed 先进的
n. [C] a person who has come into a foreign country in order to live there permanently （外来）移民，侨民
ad. (and) that is (to say) 即，即是
a. 1. of business practices and activities generally 商业（上）的，商务的
2. making or intended to make a profit 商业性的，赢利或以赢利为目的的
n. 1. [U] being a leader 领导
2. [U] the ability to be a leader 领导能力
n. [U] 上议院，参议院
a. 1. experienced; trained 有经验的，训练有素的
2. (of work) needing skill （指工作）需要技能的
n. 1. [C] a statement within an agreement or a law that a particular thing must happen or be done 规定，条款
2. (pl.) supplies of food and other necessary things 给养，供应物
3. [U] giving, lending, supplying or making sth. available; providing sth. 提供，供应，供给
n. [C] an official mark made in a passport which allows one to enter or leave a particular country （护照上的）签证
n. [C] a person who formally applies for or requests sth., esp. a job or a place at college or university 申请人
n. [C] a short easily-remembered phrase intended to bring an idea or a product to public notice 标语，口号，广告语
n. 1. [C] a statement, etc. speaking of or mentioning sb./sth. 提到，说到，暗示
2. [U] information or instructions to look at for help 查看，查阅，参考
a. bringing in plenty of money; profitable 赚钱的，可获利的
n. [U] state of not being dependent on others 独立，自主，自立
a. [U] 独立后的
n. [C] a period of time that is marked by particular events or developments 时代，历史时期
a. of, relating to or having a colony or colonies 殖民地的
n. [U] the belief in and support for the system of one country controlling another 殖民主义
a. of a large powerful country or its ruler(s) 帝国的，皇帝的
n. 1. [U] a country's efforts to have a lot of power and influence over other countries, esp. in political and economic matters 势力扩张
2. [U] a system in which a country rules other countries 帝国主义
n. [C] （手的）拇指
v. get a free ride by raising the thumb as a signal 站在路边竖起拇指要求免费搭车
a. 1. most important 最重要的，主要的，根本的
2. of the best quality; excellent 最佳的，第一流的
n. [U] state or time of greatest strength, beauty, energy, etc. 青春，壮年，全盛时期
n. [C] an organization which exists so that its members can do a particular job (esp. educational or social work), or the buildings which it uses 组织，机构，学院
n. [C] a book with detailed information about a subject for people who are studying that subject 教科书，课本
n. 1. [C] sth. very similar to sth. else; (a point of) similarity 可相比拟的事物；相似处
2. [C] a line that is always at the same distance from another line 平行线
a. (of two or more straight lines) having the same distance between each other at every point 平行的
n. [C] a promise, or sth. that is given as a sign that one will keep a promise 誓言，誓约，保证
vt. give one's word as a pledge 发誓，保证
vt. 1. control (sb./sth.) to one's advantage 操纵，控制
2. work with skillful use of the hands 操作，使用
n. [C, U] act of manipulating or being manipulated 操纵，控制
n. 1. [U] the chance of doing sth. 余地，机会
2. [U] the range of a subject covered by a book, program, discussion, class, etc. 范围
n. [C] (usu. sing.) a result or effect of an action 结果，后果
a. driven by the desire of getting more capital 为资本所驱动的
n. [U] 硅
vi. spread or increase in number quickly 迅速蔓延，迅速增加
n. [C] 蘑菇，伞菌
n. 1. [U] the laws made 法律
2. [U] action of making laws 立法
v. (cause to) move or change from one position or direction to another 移动，转变，转移
n. 1. [C] a change of place, nature, form, etc. 移动，改变，转变
2. [C] a group of workers who do a job for a period of time during the day or night; the period of time itself 轮班职工；轮班
n. 1. [C] (usu. pl.) （汽车的）排挡
2. [U] equipment, clothes, etc. that you use to do a particular activity 装备，用具，衣着
vt. organize, make ready or prepare a person or place for a particular event or type of activity 使准备好，使适应
n. [C] a desire or need for sth. esp. food 胃口，欲望
n. a high fence or board on which large advertisements are stuck 广告的招贴牌
n. 1. [C] a school for special training 专科学校
2. [C] an organization intended to advance art, science, language, etc. 学会；研究院
n. [U] the instructions which control what a computer does; computer programs （计算机）软件，程序
vt. leave (a place, thing or person) forever; stop doing sth. before you have finished it 抛弃，遗弃；放弃
n. 1. [U] (usu. sing.) a particular kind of welcome 接待，招待，欢迎
2. [U] way in which sb./sth. is received 反应
v. combine sth. in such a way that it becomes fully a part of sth. else 连接（各部）使成一整体，（使）结合，（使）完全，（使）并入
vi. (cause to) break into small parts or pieces （使）分裂，（使）分解
n. [C] 10亿
n. [C] a supporting structure around which sth. can be built 框架，构架，结构
n. [U] a means or system of carrying passengers or goods from one place to another 运输（系统），交通（系统）
a. 1. placed or coming between two people, things, etc. in time, space, degree, etc. （在时间、空间、程度方面）中间的，居中的
2. between elementary and advanced 中级的
PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS
mainly; mostly; usually 主要地；大部分；通常
in a better or higher position 处于领先地位
talk about; mention 谈论；提及
throw sth. out
throw sth. useless or unwanted away 扔掉，处理掉某物
an indication that sth. is seen as good or has official recognition 伸出大拇指表示接受或赞成的手势
talk about; mention 谈及，提到，讲到
foot the bill
be responsible for paying the cost of sth.付账
in the hope that
because of the wish that 怀着……希望
keep pace with
move forward, develop or increase at the same rate (as sb./sth.) （与……）同速前进，（与……）并驾齐驱
in other words
expressed in a different way; that is to say 换句话说，也就是说
in the meantime
(of an argument, an excuse, a theory, etc.) be able to stand up to examination or testing; be valid （指辩论、辩解、理论等）经得起检验，站得住脚
in favor of
in support of; approving of 支持；赞同
require, demand or need sth. 需求，要求
drain sb./sth. of sth.
make sb./sth. weaker, poorer, etc. by gradually using up his/its strength, money, etc. 使逐渐耗尽（力量、金钱等）
Thumbs Up Cola