Please listen to a short passage carefully and prepare to answer some questions.
Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions with your own experiences.
1) Why was the Nazi air force repeatedly bombing London?
2) Discuss some ways the people of England coped with the suffering of this time.
3) Do you think the English people considered giving up? Why didn't they?
Reports on Britain Under the Bombs
Night after night, in the hot summer and early fall of 1940, a deep, steady voice came over the Atlantic Ocean from England to America, telling of England's battle for survival under the waves of German bombers. This strong and steady voice, an American voice with a slight accent of North Carolina, belonged to Edward R. Murrow, head of the European staff of the Columbia Broadcasting System.
"This is London," said Murrow, while the bombs fell and flames spread on the streets of the city. His voice had a tone of sorrow for the suffering of that ancient city, and a tone of confidence, too — a feeling of belief that London would be there, no matter what it had to endure. It could not be destroyed.
The heavy raids began in the middle of August, and Nazi bombs started to fall along England's Channel Coast. The German bombers cast dark shadows over the white cliffs of Dover, and England's Home Guard prepared to fight on the beaches, on the cliffs, and in the hills, until the last Englishman died or the invaders were driven off.
Air Marshal Goering's bomber pilots were sure of their ultimate triumph over England. Hitler and Goering believed that when London became a burned city like Warsaw and Rotterdam, England would surrender.
But the English were more fortunate than the Poles in Warsaw and the Dutch in Rotterdam. They had the English Channel as a barrier against the Nazi ground forces, and they had the Royal Air Force (RAF) to battle the Nazis in the sky.
The hardships of London really started in the first week of September, when Hitler was at last convinced that the English did not intend to give in. On September 7, 1940, nearly four hundred German bombers hammered the city with bombs in broad daylight. Marshal Goering boasted, "This is the historic hour when our air force for the first time delivered its bombs right into the enemy's heart."
Fires burned, houses fell, gas pipes burst, and dark smoke rose from the streets. Men, women, and children felt the effect of the bombs. Radar sirens wailed, ambulances rushed from one place of agony to another, and fire fighters faced the flames hour after hour.
It seemed impossible for any city to take so much punishment and continue to endure. It seemed impossible for people of the city to do their daily jobs, to work and eat and sleep and carry on the business of life, with the crash of bombs all around them and planes spitting fire in the skies above.
But the city endured. Trains brought commuters in from the suburbs. Buses bumped along the streets. The fires were brought under control. Bottles of dairy milk arrived in door ways, and women took them in, as though the war were a thousand miles away. Newspapers appeared and people bought them, hurrying to work and reading reports of the battle raging over London.
And Edward R. Murrow went on the air, saying in his deep, steady voice, "This is London." He spoke as though nothing could ever keep him from saying those words. He did not speak them with any attempt to sound heroic. He simply voiced the quiet truth of the city's existence.
Murrow knew that Britain's fate depended upon the resolution of the people in the shops and streets, the men in the pubs, the housewives, those watching for fire on the roofs, the people who had a thousand difficult and painful things to do.
Much depended upon the handful of pilots who rose day after day and night after night to meet the flocks of Nazi bombers. The pilots in the RAF reached the limits of exhaustion and then went beyond those limits, still fighting.
But the people of London were also in the front lines, and they did not have the satisfaction of being able to fight back. They couldn't reach up and smash the enemy planes. They had to dig quickly in cellars to rescue their friends who had been buried underneath the wreckage. They had to put out endless fires. They had to stand firm and take whatever the enemy threw at them.
In a broadcast on October 1, 1940, Murrow declared: "Mark it down that these people are both brave and patient, that all are equal under the bomb, that this is a war of speed and organization, and that whichever political system best provides for the defense and decency of the little man will win."
Murrow's projection of eventual victory for the ordinary people proved to be accurate. The Nazi powers were finally defeated by the Allied nations.
n. [C] a weapon that explodes and is used to kill or hurt people or to damage buildings 炸弹，爆炸装置
vt. attack sb./sth. with bombs; drop bombs on 轰炸，投弹
n. [C] an aircraft that drops bombs or a person who uses bombs 轰炸机，投弹手，投掷炸弹者
n. 1. [U] state of continuing to live or exist; surviving 幸存，残存
2. [C] a person, thing, custom, belief, etc. that has survived from an earlier time 残存的人（物、风俗、信仰）
n. [C, U] burning gas (from sth. on fire) which usually produces a yellow light 火焰，火舌
n. 1. [U] feeling of sadness caused by loss, disappointment, regret, or grief 悲伤，悲哀，悔恨
2. [C] a particular cause of sorrow 悲伤的原因，不幸
a. 1. of or from a long time ago; having lasted for a very long time 古代的，古旧的
2. very old 老的
v. bear (pain, suffering, etc.) calmly for a long time 经受，忍受，容忍
n. 1. [C] a sudden surprise attack by armed forces 突袭，袭击
2. [C] a sudden surprise attack in order to steal or do harm （为偷袭或伤害别人而进行的）突袭，抢劫
vt. make a raid on 突袭，袭击
n. 1. [C] a part of river or other body of water which allows ships to travel along; a passage for water or other fluids to flow along 航道，海峡；沟渠
2. [C] (the shows broadcast on) a particular television station 电视频道
3. [C] a way of giving, directing or communicating sth. 途径，渠道
vt. 1. put, cause or direct (a look, thought, feeling or opinion) 投射（目光），将（思想、感情）加于
2. throw with force 投，掷，抛
n. 1. [C] all the actors in a play, etc. （戏剧等的）全体演员
2. [C] an act of throwing 投，掷，抛
n. [C] a high area of rock with a very steep side, often on a coast 悬崖，（尤指海边的）峭壁
v. 1. enter (a country or territory) with armed forces in order to attack, damage or occupy it 侵略，侵犯
2. enter (a place or situation in which you are not wanted or not expected to be) 闯入，侵扰
n. [C] a person or thing that invades 侵略者，侵犯者，入侵者
n. 1. [C] an officer of high rank 高级军官，元帅
2. [C] a chief officer of a police or fire-fighting force in some parts of the United States （美）警察局长，消防队长
v. 1. give up or give in to the power (esp. of an enemy), as a sign of defeat 投降，自首；屈服（于）
2. give sth. to sb. else because you have been forced to do so or because it is necessary to do so 交出，放弃
a. (in the service) of a king or queen 王室的，皇家的
v. hit or beat repeatedly 敲打，锤击
n. [C] 锤子，榔头
n. [U] (the period when there is) natural light from the sun 阳光，日光
a. famous or important in history 历史上有名的或重要的
n. [U] system which uses radio waves to find the position of objects which cannot otherwise be seen; equipment used for this 雷达；雷达装置
n. [C] a device for making a loud warning noise 汽笛，警报器
v. make a long, high cry, usu. because of pain or sadness; make a sound similar to that of a person wailing 嚎啕；发出尖叫声
n. [U, C] (a state or feeling of) unbearable physical or mental pain or suffering 极大的痛苦
n. [C] (usu. sing.) (loud noise made by a) violent fall, blow or break 坠落（声），打击或破裂（所发的响声）
v. 1. make a sudden loud noise 发出巨响
2. (cause to) have an accident, esp. one which damages a vehicle （使）猛撞，（使）撞毁
v. send (liquid or sth. else) out from the mouth 吐（痰）；吐（口水等）
n. [U] 口水，唾液
vi. travel regularly a long distance between one's work and one's home, esp. by train 因上班而经常来往于两地，通勤
n. [C] the trip made in commuting 通勤来往，上下班路程
n. [C] a person who commutes 往返于两地的人
n. [C] an area on the edge of a large town or city where people who work in the town or city often live 近郊
v. 1. travel, usu. in a vehicle, in an uncomfortable way because the surface one is moving over is rough 颠簸而行
2. hit (sth.) with force, esp. accidentally 碰撞
n. [C] a blow, knock or hit 碰撞
n. [C] a place on a farm where milk and cream are kept and cheese and butter are made; a shop which supplies milk and milk products 牛奶场，乳品店
a. having the qualities of a hero; very brave 英雄的，英勇的
n. 1. [U] the quality of being firm 坚决，坚定，决心
2. [U] solution 解决，解答
n. [C] a public house, a building where alcohol may be bought and drunk 小酒店，酒吧
n. 1. [U] a small number (of people or things) 少数，少量
2. [C] an amount of sth. that can be held in one hand 一把
n. [C] a group of sheep, goats or birds, or a group of people 一群（绵羊、山羊、鸟或人）
vi. gather, move, come or go together in great numbers 群集，成群结队而行
vt. 1. make (a person or an animal) very tired 使疲惫不堪
2. use (sth.) up completely 用尽，耗尽
n. [U] total loss of strength 筋疲力尽，疲惫
v. 1. (cause sth. to) be broken violently into pieces 打碎，打破，粉碎
2. hit (sb./sth.) very hard 猛撞，猛击
n. 1. [C] an act or sound of smashing 撞击（声），猛撞（声）
2. [C] a very successful song, play or film, etc. 极为成功的歌曲、戏剧或电影等
n. [C] a room under the ground floor of a building, usu. used to keep items to be used later 地窖，地下室
vt. save or bring away sb./sth. from danger 救出，解救
n. [C, U] rescuing or being rescued 营救，解救
prep. under or below 在下面，在底下，向下面
ad. under or below 在下面，在底下，向下面
vt. destroy or ruin (sth.) 破坏或毁灭，使遇难，使失事
n. [C] a vehicle or ship that has been destroyed or badly damaged 受到严重破坏的车辆或船，残骸
n. [U] remains of sth. that has been wrecked 残骸，残余物，碎片
pron.1. any (one) of the set that 任何一个
2. no matter which 无论，不管
a. socially acceptable or good 适当的，得体的，正派的
n. [U] being decent 正派，合宜，体面，得体
PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS
night after night
every night 一夜又一夜地，连夜地
no matter what
drive sb./sth. off
defeat or beat back (an enemy or an attack) 击退, 赶走
be sure of sth.
certain to receive, win, etc. sth. 确信会获得，赢得
in broad daylight
in the full light of day 大白天，光天化日之下
continue doing sth. 继续
bring under control
manage to control over 控制，使就范
bring in 把（某物）拿进来
on the air
broadcasting on radio or television 开始广播（或电视转播）
keep sb. from doing sth.
prevent sb. from doing sth. 阻止
look attentively for sth. 留意，当心
cause sth. to stop burning 扑灭，熄灭
write down 记下来，写下来
Edward R. Murrow
RAF (Royal Air Force)