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Unit 4 Astronomy:The science of the stars 第4单元 行星的科学(重点短语)--人教版新课标必修三第四单元学案

unit 4  astronomy:the science of the stars 第4单元 行星的科学(重点短语)

1. in time意为“及时”时相当于early enough, soon enough;意为“终于,早晚”时相当于sooner or later。

we got to the station just in time to catch the bus.=we got to the station just in time for the bus. 我们到达车站时,刚好赶上了那班汽车。

the doctor came in time to save her life. 医生及时赶来救了她的命。

youll succeed in time if you keep on working hard. 假若坚持努力下去,你迟早会成功的。

be in time for sth./be in time to do sth. 对于某事是及时的/及时做某事

ahead of time 提前;提早

all the time 一直;始终

at one time曾经;一度

at a time 一次

at times 有时

at the same time 同时;然而;可是

from time to time 不时;偶尔

in no time 立刻;马上

take one‘s time 不急,慢慢来

time and time again 一次又一次;一再

单项填空

—i was disappointed in       time when i didn’t pass the examinations.
—don’t be so discouraged. you’ll be successful in       time. (2009·12·河南平顶山检测)
a./; / b. a; a c./; a d. a; /

解析:选d。句意为:——我没通过考试那段时间我很失望。——别灰心。你迟早会成功的。第一个空考查的是when 引导的定语从句,表示在某段时间里,故应用in a time。而第二个空表示“迟早”,故用in time。

2. prevent ...from 阻止;制止

the heavy rain prevented us from going there. 这场大雨使我们没能到那里去。

易混辨析

prevent/stop/keep/protect

prevent, stop, keep与protect四者的常见结构为:

prevent ...(from) doing sth.;stop ...(from) doing sth.;keep ...from doing sth.; 均表示“阻止……做某事”。

上述三个结构中,在主动语态中stop 与prevent后可省去from,但在被动语态中不可省略; 而keep ...from ...中的from在任何情况下都不能省略。另外,
protect ...from ...表示“保护……不受……侵袭;阻挡;防御”。from后接能带来伤害或损害的事物。

this plan will be kept from being carried out. 这个计划将被阻止实施。

单项填空

some policemen should be sent to       them       the trees.
a. prevent; to cut down    b. stop; cutting down
c. keep; to cut down        d. keep; cutting down

解析:选b。句意为:应该派一些警察去阻止他们砍伐树木。keep/prevent/stop ... from doing sth.阻止……做某事,其中keep ...from doing sth. 中的from不可省略。故选b。

3. break out 突发;爆发(无被动语态)

trouble may break out at any moment. 灾难在任何时候都可能突然发生。

when did the war break out? 战争什么时候爆发的?

it was at midnight that a fire broke out. 在午夜时分发生了一起大火。

联想拓展

break away from 脱离(政党等);打破(陈规等)

break down 出故障;(计划等)失败;(身体、精神等)垮掉

break in 破门而入,闯入;打断(话语)等

break into 破门而入;突然……起来

break off 折断;突然中止;断绝;结束

break through 突破

break up 敲碎;放假;散会

易混辨析

come about/happen/take place/break out/occur

come about 发生,相当于happen, take place。后面不可以接宾语,也不可以使用被动语态。

happen 强调偶然发生。

take place 指按计划、安排发生;举行

break out 多用于指战争、火灾、疾病、疫情的突然爆发。

occur 常用于句式: sth. occurs to sb. 某事发生在某人身上。

用break相关短语的适当形式填空

①a terrible tsunami       in the southeastern countries of asia at christmas, 2004.

②when do you       for christmas?

③negotiations between the two sides have       .

④his house was       last week.

答案:①broke out ②break up ③broken down ④broken into

4. block out 挡住(光线)

that wall blocks out all the light.那堵墙把光线都遮住了。

联想拓展

burst out 大声喊叫;突然……起来

go out 外出;过时;熄(灯)

put out 关(灯);扑灭;生产

come out 出现,显露;出版;结果是

help out 帮助解决难题(或摆脱困境)

look out留神;注意

watch out 注意;提防;向外看

find out 找出,查明,发现

pick out挑出;辨认出,分辨出

speak out 大声地说;大胆地说

think out仔细思考(某事);想出(主意等)

hang out 挂出;闲逛

knock out (拳)击中,击倒,打昏

sell out 售完(某种货物),脱销

turn out 结果证明是

run out (of) 用完,耗尽

check out 结账离去,办妥手续离去

give out 分发(试卷等);发出(光、热等);用尽;耗完;筋疲力尽

用out相关短语的适当形式填空

①at the end of the race his legs       and he collapsed on the ground.

②it’ s easy to       him       in a crowd because he is very tall.

③his new book will       next month.

④we thought it was going to rain; it       to be a fine day.

⑤we       of/from our hotel at 5 a.m. to catch a 7 a.m. flight.

答案:①gave out ②pick; out ③come out ④turned out ⑤checked out

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