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Unit 2 Working the land 第2单元 耕作土地(核心单词)--人教版新课标必修四第一单元学案

unit 2 working the land  第2单元 耕作土地(核心单词)

1. struggle v.挣扎;努力;拼搏;斗争
     n. (为争取自由、政治权利等而进行的)斗争,奋斗

常用结构

struggle with与……斗争

struggle for 为争取……而斗争

struggle against与……斗争;为反对……而斗争

struggle to do sth. (=make great efforts to do sth.)努力做某事

struggle to one’s feet 挣扎着站起来

she struggled to keep back the tears. 她努力忍住泪水。

it was a hard struggle to get my work done on time. 为使工作按时完成, 我做了一番努力。

易混辨析

struggle/fight

struggle指较长时间的、激烈的斗争,往往指肉体及精神上的战斗。

fight意为“搏斗,打斗,打架”,表示“斗争”时,包含体力和勇猛的因素。

(1)单项填空

the working people have never stopped their struggle   unfair treatment.( 2010·01·山西太原五中检测)
a. against b. for c. from d. to

(2)完成句子

①我们应当帮助那些仍在为独立而斗争的人们。
we should help those who are still   .

②他们得和各种各样的困难作斗争。
they had to   .

(1)解析:选a。struggle against意为“同……作斗争”;struggle for意为“为了……而斗争”。

(2)①struggling for independence

②struggle with/against all kinds of difficulties

2. expand v.扩大;扩展;增加;增长;(使)膨胀;阐述;使变大

常用结构

expand...into...将……扩展/发展成……

expand on 阐述;详谈

he is thinking of expanding his business. 他在正考虑扩大他的生意。

in ten years the city’s population expanded by 12%. 十年之中,该市人口增加了百分之十二。

联想拓展

expansion n. 展开;膨胀;扩展

expansive adj. 广阔的;易膨胀的

易混辨析

expand/extend/spread/stretch

expand 意为“展开,扩大”,不仅指尺寸的增加,还可指范围和体积的扩大。

extend 意为“伸出,延伸”,指空间范围的扩大,以及长度,宽度的向外延伸,也可指时间的延长。

spread 意为“传播;蔓延;铺开”。一般指向四面八方扩大传播的范围,如传播(疾病),散布(信息)等。

stretch 意为“伸展(身体等),拉长;连绵”,一般指由曲变直,由短变长的伸展,不是加长。

选词填空(expend/extend/spread/stretch)

①the fire soon   to the nearby houses.

②the tourist season   from may till october.

③a balloon   when it is blown up.

④the cat@out in front of the fire.

答案:①spread ②extends ③expands ④stretched

3. equip vt. & vi. 配备;装备

常用结构

equip sb./sth. with 用……武装某人;用……装备某物

equip sb./sth. for 为……而武装某人;为……而装备某物

a piece of office equipment 一件办公设备

they equipped themselves for the expedition. 他们为远征准备装备。

a good education should equip you for life. 良好的教育能使你受用终生。

(1)单项填空

all classes of this school are with modern   .
a. equipped; equipment  b. equipped; equipments
c. equipping; equipments d. equipping; equipment

(2)完成句子

①the soldiers were well (装备)   weapons.

②this library   (为……而装备) atomic research.

③our classroom   (装备有) a computer and a tape recorder.

(1)解析:选a。equip ...with ...意为“用……装备……”,被动形式为be equipped with。第二空equipment意为“装备;设备”,是不可数名词。

(2) ①equipped with ② is equipped for ③ is equipped with

4. regret vt.& vi. 后悔;遗憾
    n. 遗憾;懊悔

常用结构

regret doing= regret having done=regret to have done 后悔做了某事

regret to do遗憾将要做某事

regret to say/tell/inform 遗憾地说/告诉/通知

much to one’s regret 深感遗憾

with regret 遗憾地

tom regretted telling his parents the thing. 汤姆后悔告诉了父母那件事。

i regretted to tell you you hadn’t passed the driving test. 我很遗憾地告诉你你没有通过驾驶考试。

he told me with regret that he couldn’t come to the party. 他很抱歉地对我说他不能参加这个聚会了。

he gave up teaching in 1998, much to his students regret. 他于1998年放弃了教学,这使他的学生很遗憾。

(1)单项填空

they failed to pass the exam last time. i regretted   them.(2010·01·江西赣州质量检测)
a. to be not able to help b. not being able to help
c. being not able to help d. not be able to help

(2)用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空

 

①i now regret   (leave) school so young.

②i regret   (inform) you that your contract will not be renewed.

(3)完成句子

   (我非常抱歉), i am unable to accept your invitation.

(1)解析:选b。考查regret doing这一结构的用法。本空表达对过去发生的事情感到遗憾,同时还考查了动名词的否定形式 not doing。

(2)①leaving ②to inform

(3)much to my regret/to my great regret

5. reduce vt.减少;缩小;降低;使……陷入某种更糟的状态

he is trying to reduce expenses. 他正试图减少开支。

we must gradually reduce the wage gap. 我们必须逐步缩小工资差距。

常用结构

reduce sth. to... 减少到……

reduce sth. by... 减少了……

be reduced to 沦落为……

the shopkeeper reduced the price by $10. 店主把价格降了10美元。

the poor boy is reduced to begging.那个可怜的孩子已沦为乞丐。

完成句子

①她的体重减少了5公斤。
she   her   5 kilos.

②炸弹爆炸使得该城市化为废墟。
the bombs   the city   .

答案: ① reduced;weight by ② reduced;to ruins

6. comment vi.&vt. 表达意见;作出评论
      n.[c&u] 评论;议论

常用结构

comment on/about sth./sb. 对某事/某人进行评论

make comments/no comment on sth./sb. 对某事/某人进行评论/不进行评论

the scandal caused a lot of comment. 这件丑闻遭到很多议论。

“will you resign, minister?” “no comment!”“部长,您是要辞职吗?”“无可奉告。”

(1)用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空

do you have any comments   (make) on the recent developments?

(2)完成句子

①asked about the date of the election, the prime minister@(发表意见) no decision had yet been made.

②she was asked about the pay increase but@(不进行评论) on it.

答案:(1)to make

  (2) ①commented that ② made no comment

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