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英国语文BOOK 5 LESSON 14 The chemistry of a candle(I) 蜡烛的化学组成(一) (中英对照+mp3)

LESSON 14 The chemistry of a candle(I)

第十四课 蜡烛的化学组成(一)

"And now, uncle," asked Harry, who was a favourite with the old gentleman, "can you tell me what you do when you put a candle out?"

“现在,叔叔,”哈利问,这个深受老绅士喜爱的男孩子,“你能告诉我当时你在做什么吗当你把蜡烛扑灭时?

"Put an extinguisher on it, you young rogue, to be sure."

“把一个灭火器扑在上面,你年轻时调皮捣蛋,肯定也这样。”

"Oh, but I mean, you cut off its supply of oxygen," said Master Harry.

“哦,但我的意思是,你切断了它的氧气供应,”精通的哈利说。

"Cut off its what?"

“切断它的什么?”

"He means something he heard at the Royal Institution,"(1) observed Mrs. Wilkinson. "He reads a great deal about chemistry, and he attended Professor Faraday's lectures there on the chemical history of a candle, and has been full of it ever since."

“他的意思是他在皇家机构听到的一些事情,“威尔金森太太评述说。“他读了很多关于化学的内容,他参加了法拉第教授关于蜡烛的化学史的讲座,从此之后脑中尽是它了。”

"Now, you, sir," said Uncle Bagges, "come you here to me, and tell me what you have to say about this chemical. eh?—or comical, which?—this—comical chemical history of a candle."

“现在,你,先生,”叔叔Bagges说,“你到我这里来,告诉我你关于这种化学物质你想说的话。好吗?——或者是好笑的,?——这个——蜡烛好玩的化学历史。”

"Harry, don't be troublesome to your uncle," said Mr Wilkinson.

“哈利,别麻烦你叔叔,”威尔金森先生说。

"Troublesome? Oh, not at all. I like to hear him."

“麻烦?噢,一点也不。我喜欢听他说。”

"Let us get a wax candle then, uncle. There's one on the mantle-shelf. Let me light it."

“让我们拿一个蜡烛,叔叔。被盖着的架子上有一个。让我点亮它。”

"Take care you don't burn your fingers, or set anything on fire," said Mrs Wilkinson.

“小心不要烧到你的手,或让任何东西着火,”威尔金森太太说。

"Now, uncle," commenced Harry, having drawn his chair to the side of Mr. Bagges, "we have got our candle burning. Look down on the top of it, around the wick. See, it is a little cup full of melted wax. The heat of the flame has melted the wax just round the wick. The cold air keeps the outside of it hard, so as to make the rim of it. The melted wax in the little cup goes up through the wick to be burned, just as oil does in the wick of a lamp. What do you think makes it go up, uncle?"

“现在,叔叔,”哈利正式开始,将他的椅子的拖到Bagges先生的身边,“我们让我们的蜡烛燃烧。向下看着它的顶部,大约是灯芯。看,这是一个小杯熔化的蜡。火焰的高温融化的蜡仅仅在灯芯周围。外面的冷空气让外面的部分仍旧坚硬,为了形成它的边缘。这小杯熔化的蜡通过燃烧灯芯上升,就像在一盏灯的灯芯中的油。你认为什么使它上升的,叔叔?”

"Why—why, the flame draws it up, doesn't it?"

“为什么——为什么,火焰让它下来的,不是吗?”

"Not exactly, uncle. It goes up through little tiny passages in the cotton wick, because very, very small channels, or pipes, or pores, have the power in themselves of sucking up liquids. What they do it by is called capillary attraction;(2)—just as a sponge sucks up water, or a bit of lump-sugar the little drop of tea or coffee left in the bottom of a cup.

“不完全是,叔叔。它升起是通过小段的棉芯,因为非常,非常小的通道,或管道,或气孔,本身有能力吸收液体。它们这样做叫做微吸收;——就像海绵吸水,或一小块糖放到茶或咖啡里时会掉到杯子的底部。

"Now, I'll blow the candle out; not to be in the dark, but to find out what it is.—Look at the smoke rising from the wick. I'll hold a bit of lighted paper in the smoke so as not to touch the wick. But see, for all that, the candle lights again! So this shows that the melted wax sucked up through the wick is turned into vapour, and the vapour burns. The heat of the burning vapour keeps on melting more wax, and that is sucked up too within the flame, and turned into vapour and burned; and so on till the wax is all used up and the candle is gone. So the flame, uncle, you see, is the last of the candle; and the candle seems to go through the flame into nothing, although it doesn't, but goes into several things;—and isn't it curious, as Professor Faraday said, that the candle should look so splendid and glorious in going away?

“现在,我要吹蜡烛了,不是在黑暗中,但去发现那是什么——看从灯芯上升起的烟。我将一小张点燃纸放在烟的上面,以免碰到灯芯。但你看,尽管如此,蜡烛复燃了!这表明,熔化的蜡通过灯芯的吸收变成蒸汽,并且蒸汽燃烧了。燃烧的热蒸汽继续融化着蜡,这是因为吸收了太多的热量,就变成蒸汽并燃起来了,所以直到蜡都用尽,蜡烛才是消失了。所以这火焰,叔叔,你看,是蜡烛最后留下来的,蜡烛似乎经过火焰燃烧什么都没了,其实没有,它至少变成了几件事;——这不是稀奇的,法拉第教授说,蜡烛看起来应该如此灿烂和辉煌的消失?

"I dare say that the flame of the candle looks flat to you; but if we were to put a lamp-glass over it, so as to shelter it from the draught, you would see it is round—round sideways, and running up to a peak. It is drawn up by the hot air. You know that hot air always rises, and that is the way smoke is taken up the chimney. What do you think is in the middle of the flame?"

“我敢说,蜡烛的火焰你看起来是平稳的;但如果我们用一个玻璃灯罩罩住,包住它以免它接触到气流,你会看到它是圆圆的,圆圆的斜向一边。并且往上升至峰值,它被热空气停住。你知道,热空气上升,这是烟产生化学物质的方式。你认为它是在燃烧中的吗?”

"I should say fire," replied Uncle Bagges.

“我应该说火,” Bagges 叔叔回答。

"Oh, no. The flame is hollow. The bright flame we see is something no thicker than a thin peel or skin, and it doesn't touch the wick. Inside of it is the vapour I told you of just now. If you put one end of a bent pipe into the middle of the flame, and let the other end of the pipe dip into a warm bottle, the vapour or gas from the candle will mix with the air there; and if you were to set fire to the mixture of gas from the candle and air in the bottle, it would go off with a bang."

“哦,不。火焰是空心的。我们看到的明亮的火焰是一些不比薄果皮或皮肤厚的物质,它也没有碰到灯芯。内部的蒸汽我现在告诉你。如果你把一个弯管的一端放到火焰的中间,将管道的另一端放到一个温暖的瓶子中,蜡烛的蒸汽或气体将会在那与空气混合;如果你点燃这蜡烛燃烧产生的气体和空气的混合气体瓶,它将会砰的一声爆炸。”

"I wish you'd do that, Harry," said Master Tom, the younger brother of the juvenile lecturer.

“我希望你这样做,哈利,”教师汤姆说,他是年轻的青少年讲师。

"I want the proper things," answered Harry.—"Well, uncle, the flame of the candle is a little shining case, with gas in the inside of it and air on the outside, so that the case of flame is between the air and the gas. The gas keeps going into the flame to burn; and when the candle burns properly, none of the gas ever passes out through the flame, and none of the air ever gets in through the flame to the gas. The greatest heat of the candle is in this skin, or peel, or case of flame."

“我想要正式的东西,”哈利回答说。——“嗯,叔叔,蜡烛燃烧的火焰是小小的发光的东西,内部的气体和外面的空气,这样的情况下,火焰是在空气与气体之间的。气体不断进入火焰燃烧;而当蜡烛正常燃烧,气体都不曾通过火焰传出,空气也都不曾通过火焰到达气体。蜡烛最大的热量是在皮肤,或表皮,或燃着的火焰。”

"Case of flame!" repeated Mr. Bagges. "Live and learn. I should have thought a ”candle-flame was as thick as my poor old noddle."

“燃着的火焰!”Bagges先生重复了一遍。“活到老,学到老。我以为蜡烛的火焰是和我可怜的脑袋一样厚的。

"I can show you the contrary," said Harry. "I take this piece of white paper, look, and hold it a second or two down on the candle-flame, keeping the flame very steady. Now, I'll rub off the black of the smoke, and—there—you find that the paper is scorched in the shape of a ring, but inside the ring it is only dirtied, and not singed at all."

“我可以告诉你,”哈利说。“我拿着这张白纸,看,保持一两秒钟在燃着的蜡烛上,让火焰非常稳定。现在,我将摩擦那黑烟,耶——你发现纸是烧焦的环形,但在环内只是脏,没有完全烧焦。”

"Seeing is believing," remarked the uncle.

“眼见为实,”叔叔说。

"But,"proceeded Harry, "there is more in the candle-flame than the gas that comes out of the candle. You know a candle won't burn without air. There must be always air around the gas, and touching it, as it were, to make it burn. If a candle hasn't got enough of air it goes out, or burns badly, so that some of the vapour inside of the flame comes out through it in the form of smoke; and this is the reason of a candle smoking. So now you know why a great clumsy dip smokes more than a neat wax candle: it is because the thick wick of the dip makes too much fuel in proportion to the air that can get to it.

“但是,”哈利继续说,“相对与蜡烛产生的气体,这里有更多的是在烛焰里的。你知道蜡烛没有空气不会燃烧。必须时常有空气在气体周围,接触它,让它燃烧。如果蜡烛没有足够的空气它会熄灭,或烧的很糟糕,以致一些火焰内部的蒸汽通过烟雾的形式出来,这是蜡烛出烟的原因。所以现在你知道为什么一个浸润的厚芯出的烟超过一个干净整洁的蜡烛:那是因为浸润的厚芯使燃料在可得到的空气中占太大的比例。

"What should you say now," continued Harry, "if I were to tell you that the smoke that comes out of a candle is the very thing that makes a candle burn with a bright light? Yes; a candle shines by consuming its own smoke. The smoke of a candle is a cloud of small dust; and the little grains of dust are bits of charcoal, or carbon, as chemists call it. They are burned the moment they are made; and the place they are made in is the case of flame itself, where the strongest heat is. The great heat separates them from the gas which comes from the melted wax; and as soon as they touch the air on the outside of the thin case of flame they burn."

“现在你该说些什么,”哈利继续说,“如果我告诉你,蜡烛里出来的烟是让蜡烛燃烧着明亮灯光的重要东西?是的,蜡烛明亮是通过利用自己产生的烟。蜡烛的烟是一堆小的粉末尘埃组成,小颗粒的粉尘是少量木炭类,或碳,化学家这样叫它。它们产生的时候就燃烧了,而且他们产生的地方是在火焰本身燃烧的情况下,热量最强的地方。最大的热力将它们和那些从融化的蜡中来的气体分离,一旦接触外面稀薄的空气,他们会燃烧。”

"Can you tell me how it is that the little bits of carbon cause the brightness of the flame?" asked Mr. Wilkinson.

“你能告诉我为何小分子的碳会调节火焰的亮度吗?”威尔金森先生问。

"Because they are pieces of solid matter," answered Harry. "To make a flame shine, there must always be some solid, or at least dense, matter in it."

“因为他们是固体物质,”哈利回答。“让火焰闪光,必须时常有立体的,或者至少密集的,物质在里面。”

"Very good," said Mr. Bagges; "solid stuff necessary to brightness!"

Bagges先生说,“很好,立体的东西是亮度的必需!”

"Some gases and other things," resumed Harry, "that burn with a flame you can hardly see, burn splendidly when something solid is put into them. Hydrogen(3) gas if blown through a pipe, burns with very little light; but if the flame is blown upon a piece of quick-lime,(4) it gets so bright as to be quite dazzling. If you now send some oxygen(5) on to the flame, the flame gets no brighter, but the lime shines like a little sun. Make the smoke of oil of turpentine pass through the same oxygen, and it gives the flame a beautiful brightness directly. Well, carbon, or charcoal, is what causes the brightness of all lamps, and candles, and other common lights; so, of course, there is carbon in what they are all made of."

“气体和其他一些东西“哈利继续,“火焰燃烧你几乎看不到,当某些固体物质加入里面时燃烧会变得耀眼。氢气体如果吹入管道,燃烧的光亮很小;但是,如果火焰吹在一块生石灰,它会变得明亮,很刺眼。如果你现在输一些氧气到火焰中,火焰不会变得更亮,但石灰燃烧得光如同小阳光。让松节油的烟雾通过相同的氧气,它确实会给出一簇漂亮明亮的火焰。好,碳分子,或木炭,是调控所有灯的亮度,还有蜡烛,和其他常见灯的原因;所以,当然,这些所有的都会产生碳。”

"So carbon is smoke, eh? and light is owing to your carbon. Giving light out of smoke, eh? as they say in the classics," observed Mr. Bagges.

“所以碳是烟,是吗?并且亮度是由你的碳调控。发光是用烟,是吗?正如他们在经典里所说的,”Bagges先生评述说。

solid, substantial.

固体,物质。

splendid, grand.

壮丽的,宏伟。

troublesome, tiresome.

麻烦,令人厌烦。

vapour, gas.

蒸汽、天然气。

QUESTIONS

问题

When a candle burns, why does the melted wax go up through the wick? What happens when you hold a bit of lighted paper in the smoke of a candle after it has been extinguished? What does this show? Of what does the flame of a candle consist? What is inside? How can this be shown? Without what will a candle not burn? Why does a "clumsy dip smoke more than a neat wax candle"? What in reality is the smoke of a candle? Why is it that the little bits of carbon cause the brightness of the flame? Illustrate this by the example of the oxy-hydrogen lime-light.

当蜡烛燃烧时,为什么熔化的蜡大部分通过灯芯?当你拿一张点燃一点的纸放在蜡烛熄灭后产生的烟上会发生什么?这说明了什么?蜡烛燃烧的火焰由什么组成?内部是什么?这怎样被显示出来?没有什么蜡烛不会燃烧?为什么一个“浸润的厚芯出烟超过一个整洁的蜡烛”?蜡烛的烟在实际上是什么?为什么小分子的碳是导致火焰的亮度的关键?用氢氧聚光灯氢氧聚光灯说明这一点。

译文属小E英语原创,未经允许,不得转载。

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