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英国语文BOOK 5 LESSON 15 The chemistry of a candle (II) 蜡烛的化学组成(二)(中英对照+mp3)

LESSON 15 The chemistry of a candle (II)

第十五课 蜡烛的化学组成(二)

"But what becomes of the candle," pursued Harry, "as it burns away? where does it go?"

“但蜡烛变成了什么,”哈利继续说,“它燃烧消失了吗?它去哪儿了?”

"Nowhere, I should think. It burns to nothing."

“任何地方都不,我想。它燃烧后什么都没有。”

"Oh, dear, no!" said Harry; "everything goes somewhere. You can see it goes into smoke, which makes soot, for one thing. There are other things it goes into, not to be seen by merely looking, but you can get to see them by taking the right means. Just put your hand over the candle, uncle."

“哦,天哪,不!”哈利说,“一切都在某个地方。你可以看到它变成了烟雾,,产生烟灰,这是一件。还有其他东西它转换了,只是不能被全然看见,但是你可以看到他们通过采取正确的方式。就把你的手放在蜡烛上,叔叔。”

"Thank you, my young gentleman, I would rather be excused."

“谢谢你,我年轻的绅士,我宁愿被打扰。”

"Not close enough down to burn you, uncle;—higher up. There;—you feel a stream of hot air, so something seems to rise from the candle. Suppose you were to put a long glass lamp-chimney over the flame, and let the flame burn just within the end of it, as if it were a chimney, some of the hot steam would go up and pass out at the top, but a sort of dew would be left behind in the glass chimney, if the chimney was cold enough when you put it on. There are ways of collecting this dew; and when it is collected it turns out to be really water. I am not joking, uncle. Water is one of the things which the candle turns into while burning—water coming out of fire. In some light-houses, Professor Faraday says, two gallons of oil are burned in a single night; and if the windows are cold, the steam from the oil clouds them, and, in frosty weather, freezes into ice."

“不要靠的太近烧到你,叔叔,高一点。这儿,你可以感觉到一股热气流,所以似乎一些东西从蜡烛里升起。假设你把一长玻璃灯罩罩住火焰,让火焰在里面燃烧,就像是一个烟囱,一些热蒸汽会上升并且到达顶部,一些水珠会留在玻璃灯罩上,如果灯罩你放上去时足够冷的时候。这里有一些收集这些露水的方法;且当它被收集后它真的变成了水。我不是在开玩笑,叔叔。水是烛光转变成的一件事,当它燃烧时——水变成了火。法拉第教授说,在一些灯塔,两加仑的石油在一个晚上燃烧,如果窗户都是冷的,油产生的蒸汽,在寒冷的天气会冻结成冰。”

"Water out of a candle, eh?" exclaimed Mr. Bagges, "As hard to get, I should have thought, as blood out of a post. Where does it come from?"

“水从蜡烛来,是吗?”Bagges先生喊道,“那很难得,我本以为,就像血液的职位。它是从哪里来的?”

"Part from the wax, and part from the air; and yet not a drop of it comes from either the air or the wax. What do you make of that, uncle?"

从一部分蜡,一部分的空气,而不是下降来自于空气或蜡。你会怎么做,叔叔?”

"Eh? Oh, I'm no hand at riddles! Give it up."

“嗯?哦,我毫无头绪!放弃它。”

"No riddle at all, uncle. That which comes from the wax is a gas called hydrogen. We can obtain it from water by passing the steam of boiling water through a red-hot gun-barrel which contains a quantity of iron wire or turnings. Part of the steam will mix with the iron turnings, and change them into rust; and the other part, which comes out of the end of the barrel, will be hydrogen gas, and this part of the water we can set on fire."

“不是谜,叔叔。那些来自于蜡的是一种气体氢。我们可以从水得到它,通过让蒸汽沸腾的水来通过一个炽热的炮管,包含很多的铁丝或转弯处。蒸汽的一部分将与铁钢屑混合,并变成铁锈;另一部分,出来流在末端的桶里,将是氢气,这部分的水我们可以点燃。”

"Eh?" cried Mr. Bagges. "Upon my word! One of these days we shall have you setting the river on fire!"

“嗯?”Bagges先生喊道。“我敢保证!总有一天我们会看到你让河水着火的!”

"Nothing more easy," said Harry. "When pure hydrogen burns, we get nothing but water. I should like to show you how light this hydrogen is; and I wish I had a small balloon to fill with it and send up to the ceiling; or a pipe full of it to blow soap-bubbles with, and show how much faster they rise than common ones blown with the breath."

“没有什么比这更容易,”哈利说。“纯氢燃烧时,除了水我们什么都不能得到。我想向您展示这氢气是如何的轻;,我希望我有一个小气球装满它,放到天花板上去,或一段管道充满它用来吹肥皂泡,并展示他们上升的速度比我们平时呼吸的气体快多少。”

"So do I," interposed Master Tom.

“我也一样,”汤姆插话到。

"And so," resumed Harry, "hydrogen, you know, uncle is part of water, and just one-ninth part. The other eight parts are a gas also, called oxygen. This is a very curious gas. It won't burn in air at all itself, like gas from a lamp; but it has a wonderful power of making things burn that are lighted and put into it. A lighted candle put into a jar of oxygen blazes up directly, and is consumed before you can say Jack Robinson. Charcoal burns away in it as fast, with beautiful bright sparks; phosphorus burns with a light that would dazzle you to look at; and a piece of iron or steel, just made red-hot at the end first, may be burned in oxygen more quickly than a stick could be in common air. The experiment of burning things in oxygen beats any fire-works."

“所以“哈利继续说,”氢,你知道的,是水的一部分,叔叔,它只是九分之一。其他八份气体也被称为氧。这是一个非常奇妙的气体。它不会在空气中燃烧本身,像从一盏灯产生的气体,但它有一个奇妙的力量,让点燃的东西燃烧并且保持那种状态。一根点燃的蜡烛放在一罐氧气直接燃烧起来,且它在你说完杰克罗宾逊之前就被消耗了。木炭在里面燃烧一样快,有美丽明亮的火花;磷燃烧的光看会让你眼花缭乱;一块铁或钢,炼到最后一步已经火热了,在氧中燃烧可能比一根棍子在平常的空气中更快。在氧气中的燃烧实验是打败任何火中作业的”。

"How funny that must be!" exclaimed Tom.

“那该多么有趣!”汤姆喊道。

"Now we see, uncle," Harry continued, "that water is hydrogen and oxygen united together; that water is got whenever hydrogen is burned in common air; that a candle won't burn without air; and that when a candle burns, there is hydrogen in it burning and forming water. Now, then, where does the hydrogen of the candle get the oxygen, to turn into water with it?"

“现在我们,叔叔,”哈利继续说道,“水是氢和氧联合在一起组成,不论何时氢在平常的空气中燃烧都会生成水,蜡烛没有空气不会燃烧,当蜡烛燃烧时,氢会燃烧,形成水。现在,然后,蜡烛里的氢在哪里获得的氧气,来变成水?”

"From the air, eh?"

“从空中,嗯?”

"Just so. It is the oxygen in the air that makes things burn; but if the air were noting but oxygen, a candle would not last above a minute.

“只是如此。它是空气中的氧气,让之燃烧;但如果空气中只有氧气,蜡烛持续燃烧不会超过一分钟。

"If a house were on fire in oxygen,' as Professor Faraday said, 'every iron bar, or, rather, every pillar, every nail and iron tool, and the grate itself; all the zinc and copper roofs, and leaden coverings, and gutters, and pipes, would consume and burn, increasing the combustion."

“如果房子在氧气里着火了,法拉第教授说,“每一个铁条,或者更确切地说,每一个支柱,每个指甲和铁工具,和炉篦本身;所有的锌和铜屋顶,铅灰色的覆盖物,排水沟,管道,都将消耗和燃烧,提高氧化。”

"That would be, indeed, 'burning like a house on fire,'" observed Mr. Bagges.

“确实是,事实上,燃烧就像是房子着火了,”Bagges先生评述到。”

"But there is another gas, called nitrogen(1)," said Harry "which is mixed with the air; and it is this which prevents a candle from burning out too fast."

“但是还有另一种气体,称为氮,”哈利说“它与空气混合,它正是可以防止蜡烛燃烧的太快。”

"Eh?" said Mr. Bagges. "Well, I do think we are under considerable obligations to nitrogen."

“嗯?”Bagges先生说。“嗯,我认为我们应该思考关于氮的义务。

"I have explained to you, uncle," continued Harry "how a candle, in burning, turns into water. But it turns into something else besides that. The little bits of carbon that I told you about, which are burned in the flame of a candle, and which make the flame bright, mingle with the oxygen in burning, and form still another gas, called carbonic acid(2) gas, which is very destructive to life when we breathe it. So you see that a candle-flame is vapour burning; and that the vapour, in burning, turns into water and carbonic acid gas."

“叔叔,我已经向你解释过“,哈利继续说“在燃烧的蜡烛,如何生成水。但它除此之外也变成别的东西。我跟你说过的小分子的碳,在蜡烛的火焰中燃烧,使火焰更明亮,与氧气混合燃烧,并形成另一种气体,称为碳酸气体, 生活当我们呼吸它时它是非常具有破坏性的。所以你看,烛焰是蒸气燃烧;蒸汽,在燃烧,变成水和碳酸气体。”

"Haven't you pretty nearly come to your candle's end?" said Mr. Wilkinson.

“你从没有看到你蜡烛熄灭吗?”威尔金森先生说。

"Nearly. I only want to tell uncle that the burning of a candle is almost exactly like our breathing. Breathing is consuming oxygen, only not so fast as burning. In breathing, we throw out from our lungs water in the form of vapour, and carbonic acid gas, and take oxygen in. Oxygen is as necessary to support the life of the body as it is to keep up the flame of a candle."

“差不多。我只想告诉叔叔,蜡烛的燃烧几乎就完全像我们呼吸。呼吸消耗氧气,只是不像燃烧如此之快。呼吸时,我们从肺里呼出蒸汽的形式的水,和碳酸气体,再吸入氧气。氧气是必要生命支持,就像它让蜡烛保持火焰。”

"Well," said Mr. Bagges, "any more to tell us about the candle?"

Bagges先生说,“好了,还有其他的要告诉我们关于蜡烛吗?”

"If I had time, I could tell you a great deal more that Professor Faraday said about oxygen, and hydrogen,and carbon, and water, and breathing; but you should go and hear him yourself, uncle."

“如果我有时间,我可以告诉你更多,法拉第教授关于氧气和氢气,碳和水,呼吸的说法,但是你应该去自己去听他说的,叔叔。”

"Eh? well I think I shall. Some of us seniors may learn something from a juvenile lecture, at any rate if given by a Faraday. And now, my boy, I tell you what," added Mr. Bagges; "I am very glad to find you so fond of study and science; and you deserve to be encouraged; and so I'll give you a—what-d'ye-call-it?—a galvanic battery(3) on your next birth-day; and so much for your teaching your old uncle the Chemistry of a Candle."

“嗯?我想我必须去。我们中的一些老年人可能会学到一些东西从一个年轻人的演讲,无论如何,如果是法拉第讲的话。现在,我的孩子,我告诉你,”Bagges先生补充道,“我很高兴发现你如此喜欢研究和科学;你应该被鼓励,所以我给你一个——它叫什么来着?——你的下一个生日的原电池,和为这么多你教你叔叔的蜡烛的化学知识。”

seniors, old folks.

老年人,老年人。

support, maintain.

支持,维护。

suppose, assume.

假设,假设。

QUESTIONS

问题

What are the different things into which the candle goes when it burns? How is the water produced? What is it that prevents the candle from burning too fast? How is the carbonic acid gas produced? show how the burning of a candle resembles the process of breathing.

当蜡烛燃烧时会变成什么不同的东西?水是怎样产生的?是什么阻止蜡烛燃烧的太快?碳酸气体是怎么产生?简述为何蜡烛燃烧就像呼吸的过程。

译文属小E英语原创,未经允许,不得转载。

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