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英国语文BOOK 5 LESSON 18 Living stoves 活生生的火炉(中英对照+mp3)

LESSON 18 Living stoves

第十八课 活生生的火炉

[Animal heat is caused by the union of the oxygen of the air with the carbon derived from the food we eat. This carbon, taken in as a part of our food, and being used to form the tissues of the body, is dislodged. particle by particle, whenever we move a muscle, be it of the heart. lungs, or limbs, and whenever we think or feel; and it is then that the union with oxygen (that is, the combustion takes place.) The more intensely, therefore, we think, and act. and feel, the more carbon we burn, and the more repairs our bodies need. The condition of life is therefore death; and the faster we live the more rapidly are the particles of our bodies burning up—passing away. The following humorous article may help to fix some of these principles in our memories.]

【动物的热量是由空气中的氧和我们食物中的碳混合而成。这种碳被当做食物的一部分摄入体内,用以形成身体的组织,随后被排出。只要我们动一下肌肉,思考问题或是感觉时,心脏和肺部以及四肢的碳就会一粒一粒的被排出,随后就能和氧结合(即氧化的过程)。因此,我们思考,运动和感觉越强烈,我们燃烧的碳就越多,我们的身体就需要越多的修复。因此,生命的状态就是死亡;我们的生活节奏越快,体内的碳燃烧得越快——消失得越快。下面这些诙谐得物品可能有助于修复我们记忆中某些这样的信念。】

WE must be plain with our reader. It will not do to mince matters where questions of science are concerned. Dainty people will, no doubt, object to the proposition we are about to advance. Nevertheless we persist, and proceed to lay down the following assertion: We are all living stoves—walking fire-places—furnaces in the flesh.

我们必须要用简明的言语向读者阐明。事关科学的问题不可杂糅事实。毫无疑问的是,人们的挑剔要服从于我们想要进步的主张。然而,我们还是会坚持并继续铺下以下的声明:我们所有人都是一个活生生的火炉子——会走路的火炉子——人肉炉子。

Now we do not intend to say that any one can light a cigar, or boil an egg, or even ignite a lucifer-match at these human hearths. Still, we repeat, these bodies of ours are stoves—fire-places—furnaces, if these terms can be applied to any apparatus for the express production of heat. And is not heat produced in the human body by the union of oxygen with carbon, just the same as by the burning of wood in an open fire-place? and does not this union take place in the capillaries(1) of the blood-vessels?

我们也没打算说人的身体能点燃雪茄,或者煮熟鸡蛋,甚至点燃火柴。我们还是要重复的是,如果这些术语因为表达产生热而能应用于任何装置的话,那么我们的身体是火炉。这种热量不是由于碳氧结合产生于体内,只是和在开阔地上烧木头一个原理吗?这以结合过程发生在血管的毛细管内吗?

But granting that our bodies are veritable stoves, the reader will desire to know where we procure our fuel. Fortunately, our coal and fire-wood are stored up in a very interesting form. They are laid before us in the shape of bread and butter, puddings and pies; rashers of bacon for the labourer, and haunches of venison or turtle-soup for the epicure.(2) Instead of being brought up in scuttles, they are presented in tureens, dishes, or tumblers, or all of them, in pleasant succession.

但是读者们就算同意我们的身体是真正的火炉这一说法,他们也会想知道我们在何处产生燃料。幸运的是,我么的“煤”和“木柴“都以一种很有趣的形式储存着。他们的形状像面包和黄油,布丁和馅饼一样摆在我们面前;像是劳工们吃的培根薄片,也像美食家们品尝的鹿腰和乌龟汤。他们没有放在煤桶内,而是有序地摆放在盖碗,碟子,水杯,或者所有这些器皿中。

In fact, whenever you send a person an invitation to dinner, you virtually request the honour of his company to take fuel; and when you see him enthusiastically employed on your dainties, you know that he is literally "shovelling" fuel into his corporeal stove. The ultimate form in which this fuel is burned in the capillaries is that of carbon, with a little hydrogen and sulphur; but we swallow it in the shape of fat, starch, sugar, alcohol, and other less inflam-matory compounds. By far the most heating of these substances is fat. Ten pounds of this material, imported into your stove, will do as much work—that is, will produce as much warmth—as twenty-five pounds of starch, twenty-five of sugar, or even twenty-six of spirits.

实际上,你邀请别人共进晚餐时,你其实是在要求尊重其同伴摄入燃料;当对方兴高采烈地答应你的请求,你知道他是在答应将燃料“投入“到体内。这些燃料在毛细血管中燃烧过后的最终形式是碳,伴着一点点氢和硫;但是我们咽下去时它的形状就会是脂肪,淀粉,糖,酒精和其它少量炎症性混合物。到这一步,脂肪是热量最大的物质。体内摄入十磅脂肪,做的功就相当于——即产生的热量——二十五磅淀粉,糖,甚至是二十六磅的烈酒所产生的热量。

And a pleasant thing it is to observe how sagaciously the instinct of man has fastened upon the articles which will best supply him with the species of fuel he requires. The Esquimau(3) is extremely partial to oily fare. He does not know why. He never heard of the doctrine of animal heat, but he feels intuitively(4) that bear's grease and blubber are the things for him. Condemn him to live on potatoes or Indian corn, and the poor fellow would resent the cruelty as much as an alderman of the old school if sentenced to subsist on water-gruel alone.

观察人的本能是件让人愉悦的事,人们能认定某个物品就是最能满足自己所需的燃料。爱斯基摩人特别钟爱油腻的食物。他们自己也不知道这是为什么。他们从未听说过动物热量这回事,但是他们本能地知道熊脂和鲸脂就是自己所需。要是指责他们靠土豆或是印度玉米生活,这些可怜的家伙会对这种残忍行为表示愤恨,这种愤恨程度不亚于让一个市政议员靠喝米汤度日的愤怒。

And the savage would be perfectly right. Exposed as he is to the fierce cold of a northern sky, every object around him plundering him of his caloric incessantly, what he needs is plenty of oily food, because from that he can produce the greatest quantity of heat. On the other hand, the native of the tropics, equally ignorant of animal chemistry, eschews the fiery diet, which his climate renders inappropriate, and keeps himself cool on rice, or dates, or watery fruits.

爱斯基摩人是对的。他们生活在地球北部,那里天气极寒,他们身边的一切东西都在不断地吸取他们身上的热量,他们需要的就是油腻食物,因为他们能从这些食物当中得到大量的热量。另一方面,热带地区的居民也同样不会在意这种动物热量之说,他们会避开高热量的饮食,这和当地的气候不相协调。他们会把米饭,大枣或富含水分的水果进行冷却。

Hence we see the reason why a very stout man, if deprived of food, can keep up his corporeal fires for a longer time than a slender one. Human fat is fuel laid away for use. It constitutes a hoard of combustible material upon which the owner may draw whenever his ordinary supplies are intercepted. Let all plump persons therefore rejoice. We offer them our hearty, perhaps somewhat envious, congratulations. They, at any rate, are prepared to stand a long siege from cold.

因此,我们就能知道,如果没有了食物,为什么强壮的人能比瘦弱的人维持更长时间。人体脂肪是留存待用的燃料。一旦人体得不到食物供应,就需要燃烧脂肪。胖的人这时候也会变得瘦弱。我们为他们高兴,或许很有一些羡慕和祝贺。他们至少已经具备了更能抵御寒冷的条件。

For the same reason, animals which hibernate,(5) like the bear, jerboa,(6) marmot,(7) dormouse,(8) bat, and others, generally grow plump before they retire into winter quarters. Upon their capital of fat they subsist during their lethargy,(9) the respiration being lessened, the pulse reduced to a few beats per minute, and the temperature perhaps nearly to the freezing point. But when the season of torpor terminates, they issue from their caves and burrows meagre and ravenous, having burned up their stock of fuel; Bruin(10) himself appearing to be anxious to defraud the perfumers of the unguent(11) which is so precious in their eyes.

同样的原因,一些冬眠动物,比如熊,跳鼠,土拔鼠,睡鼠和蝙蝠等等,他们会在冬季到来之前会身体发胖。这些脂肪能维持他们在冬眠期间的生命。冬眠期间,他们呼吸减弱,脉搏每分钟只跳动几下,体温接近冰点。但是冬季一过,他们就会又饿又虚弱地从洞穴里出来,这时他们已经消耗光了储存的脂肪;布伦熊会急切地寻找香料商,这时他们眼中的美食。

But perhaps the most striking feature in this warmth-producing apparatus(12) within us is the self-regulating power which it possesses. The fires on our domestic hearths decline at one moment, and augment at another. Sometimes the mistress of the house threatens to faint on account of excessive heat; sometimes the master endeavours to improve the temperature by a passionate use of the poker, with an occasional growl respecting the excessive cold.

但是或许我们体内这一产生热量的装置最显著的特征是其自我调节能力。我们体内的火会在某个时候降下去,在另一个时间点又升高。有时由于热量过高,人会昏厥过去;有时由于过度寒冷,我们又会急切地想要提升体温。

Were such irregularities to prevail unchecked in our fleshy stoves, we should suffer considerable annoyance. After a meal of very inflammatory materials, or an hour spent in extraordinary exertion, the gush of heat might throw the system into a state of high fever. How is prevented? In some of our artificial stoves, little doors or slides are employed to control the admission of air; in furnaces connected with steam-engines we may have dampers, which will accomplish the same purpose by the ingenious workings of the machine itself.

如果这种无规律现象在我们体内肆意盛行,那么我们肯定会极为困扰。每次吃完含高热量的食物或者剧烈运动一小时后,产生的热量会让人体进入高烧状态。如何防止这种现象的出现?有些人造火炉有小门会滑片来控制空气的流通;我们会在连接蒸汽机引擎的火炉装上气流调节器,这样,机器就能实现原来设定的目的。

But neither doors nor dampers, pokers nor stokers, can be employed in the bodily apparatus. If, on the one hand, our human fires should begin to flag from undue expenditure of heat, the appetite speaks out sharply and compels the owner to look around for fuel. Hunger rings the bell and orders up coal in the shape of savoury meats. Should the summons be neglected, the garnered fat, as we have seen, is thrown into the grate to keep the furnace in play.

但是人体内的火炉却既不能装上门和气流调节器,也无法配备拨火棍和司炉。一方面,如果我们的体内需要消耗过多的热量,我们就会胃口大开,不得不寻找食物补充能量。饥饿会敲起警钟,警告此时需要摄入可口的肉块。如果我们无视身体的要求,体内储存的脂肪就会开始消耗,以此提供热量。

If, on the other hand, the heat of the body should become unreasonably intense, a very cunning process of reduction is adopted. When a substance grows too hot, the simplest method of bringing it into a cooler frame is to sprinkle it with water. This is precisely what occurs in our human frames. For no sooner does our internal heat rise above its standard height than the perspiration tubes, with their six or seven millions of openings, indignant at the event, begin to pour out the fluid. so as to bathe the surface of the whole body. Whenever, therefore, a man becomes over-heated, by working, running, rowing, fighting, making furious speeches or other violent exertions, he invariably resorts to this method of quenching the heat, by "pouring on water."

另一方面,如果体内热量高的离谱,我们能采用一种巧妙的方式来减低热量。如果一件物品变得很热,要使其冷却下来的最简单办法就是往上面浇水。我们的体内也正进行着这样的过程。一旦我们体内的热量高出警戒线,数以六七百万计的毛细血管就会打开,将汗排出,这样,整个身体表面就会被弄湿。因此,每次工作,跑步,划船,搏斗,进行激情洋溢的演讲或是其他剧烈运动之后,人体内热量就会变得过高,身体就会用这种方法降低热量——即“往上倒水”。

What shall we say, then, good reader? Speaking seriously, and looking at the question from a mere human point of view, could any project appear more hopeless than one for burning fuel in a soft, delicate fabric, like the human body—a fabric composed for the most part of mere fluids—a fabric which might be easily scorched by excess of heat or damaged by excess of cold? Does it not seem strange that a stove should have flesh for its walls, veins for its flues, and skin for its covering? Yet here is an apparatus which, as if by magic, produces a steady stream of heat;—not trickling penuriously from its fountains, but flowing on day and night, winter and summer, without a moment's cessation, from January to December.

亲爱的读者,我们这时又该说什么呢?严肃的说,从一个纯粹的人的角度来看这个问题,有哪一个工程能比这更没有希望呢:一个在柔软精致的体内燃烧,如人体——一个大部分由液体组成的身体——随时会被过高的热量烧焦或者被过低的热量摧毁。一个火炉把人体当成炉壁,将血管当成冷媒管,用皮肤当做覆盖,这难道不奇怪吗?但是有这么一个神奇的装置能产生稳定的热量流;——它不会喷出,只是日日夜夜,不分季节,不分年月,时时刻刻都在不停地流动。

Carry this splendid machine to the coldest regions on the globe, set it up where the frosts are so crushing that nature seems to be trampled dead,—still it pours out its mysterious supplies with unabated profusion. It is an apparatus, too, which does its work unwatched, and in a great measure unaided. The very fuel, which is thrown into it in random heaps, is internally sifted and sorted, so that the true combustible elements are conveyed to their place and applied to their duty with unerring precision.

人即使到了地球上最冷的地方,那里全部覆盖着霜雪,大自然死气沉沉,——体内也还是能不断产出这种热量。人体这种提供热量的装置工作时不用监管,很大程度上也没有受到帮助。人摄入的能量随意堆积,在体内会经过筛选,这样,真正可燃的材料就会被精确地输送到该去的地方,产生热量。

No hand is needed to trim its fires, to temper its glow, to remove its ashes. Smoke there is none, spark there is none, flame there is none. All is so delicately managed that the fairest skin is neither shrivelled nor blackened by the burning within. Is this apparatus placed in circumstances which rob it too fast of its heat? Then the appetite becomes clamorous for food, and in satisfying its demands the fleshy stove is silently replenished. Or, are we placed in peril from superabundant warmth? Then the tiny flood-gates of perspiration are flung open, and the surface is laid under water until the fires within are reduced to their wonted level.

炉子里的火不需要人去烧,不需要人去控制热量,也不需要人去清灰。那里面无烟,无火星,也没有火焰。左右的事情就是这么奇妙,最美的皮肤没有被里面燃烧着的火烧皱或因此变黑。这个装置所在的地方难道能快速将火熄灭吗?然后人就会胃口大开,得到食物的满足后,能量又会重新填满。或者说,过多的热量会让我们置身险境吗?这时毛细血管就会张开,人体表面就会流汗,直到体内的热量恢复到正常水平。

Assailed on the one hand by heat, the body resists the attack, if resistance be possible, until the store of moisture is dissipated; assailed on the other by cold, it keeps the enemy at bay until the hoarded fuel is expended. Thus protected, thus provisioned, let us ask whether these human hearths are not entitled to rank among the standing marvels of creation; for is it not startling to find, that, let the climate be mild or rigorous, let the wind blow from the sultry desert or come loaded with polar sleet, let the fluctuations of temperature be as violent as they may without us, there shall still be a calm, unchanging, undying summer within us?

一只手的问题过高时,如果可能的话整个身体都会帮忙进行调节,直到热量散开;另一只手受冷时,体内贮存的热量会发出抵抗。因此,人体能得到保护,也能得到能量。看,人体内的火炉能不能算是现存的创造奇迹?我们可以不惊讶地发现,无论天气是温和还是极端,不管是从沙漠吹来的闷热的风,还是极地飘来的雨夹雪,不管天气如何剧烈变化,我们体内是否还是会有一个平静,稳定,永不消失的夏天?

—George Wilson

—George Wilson

temperature, degree of heat.

温度,热的程度。

terminates, expires.

结束,到期。

ultimate, final.

最终,最后。

veritable, actual,

名副其实的,真正的。

QUESTIONS

问题

How is animal beat produced? where does the carbon come from? When does the combustion take place? To what may our bodies therefore be compared? What is their fuel? Which is the best fuel? In what countries is it the chief food? What does the native of the tropics prefer? Why can a stout man survive without food longer than a lean man? What are hibernating animals? Give examples. How are they sustained during winter? What is perhaps the most striking feature in our heal-producing apparatus? How does it intimate that more fuel is required? How is excessive heat reduced?

动物如何产生热量?碳从哪来?碳氧结合在哪里进行?因此我们的身体会被比做什么?我们身体的燃料是什么?最好的燃料是什么?这种最好的燃料是哪些国家的主要食物?热带地区的人们偏爱什么?在不进食的情况下,为什么强壮的人能比瘦弱的人活得更长?什么是冬眠动物?举几个例子。他们在冬天时如何维持生命?人体中愈合装置的最大特征是什么?它如何暗示需要更多的摄入燃料?过多的热量是如何被减少的?

译文属小E英语原创,未经允许,不得转载。

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