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基本英语语法:英文后缀添加规则总结

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The endings -able, -ion, -er, -or, -ance, -ence, -ous, -ish, and -al are generally used to form adjectives and nouns. Here are some guidelines about how they affect the spelling of the word to which they're added:

-able, -ion, -er, -or, -ance, -ence, -ous, -ish, 和-al常常充当名词和形容词的后缀。以下这些规则指出了后缀对单词的影响:

When you're adding one of these endings to a word that ends with a consonant, the spelling is often straightforward:

当原本的词汇是以辅音结尾,一般直接添加后缀。

Adapt, adaptable
Addict, addiction
Mountain, mountainous
Black, blackish

(vi. 适应), (adj. 适合的;能适应的;可修改的)
(vt. 使沉溺;使上瘾), (n. 上瘾,沉溺;癖嗜)
(n. 山;山脉), (adj. 多山的;巨大的;山一般的)
(n. 黑色;黑人;黑颜料), (adj. 带黑色的)

If you add one of the endings to a word that ends in an e that isn't pronounced, drop this final e:

如果单词结尾有不发音的e,则去掉结尾的e再加后缀:

Inflate, inflation
advise, advisable
dance, dancer

(vt. 使充气;使通货膨胀), (n. 膨胀;通货膨胀;夸张;自命不凡)
(vt. 建议;劝告,忠告;通知;警告), (adj. 明智的,可取的,适当的)
(n. 舞蹈;舞会;舞曲), (n. 舞蹈家;舞蹈演员;舞女;跳舞者)

The exceptions to this rule are words that end with a ‘soft’ce or ge sound:

这条规则在以ge、ce结尾时例外,不去掉结尾的e:

Notice, noticeable
Courage, courageous
Advantage, advantageous

(n. 通知,布告;注意;公告), (adj. 显而易见的,显著的;值得注意的)
(n. 勇气;胆量), (adj. 有胆量的,勇敢的)
(n. 优势;利益;有利条件), (adj. 有利的;有益的)

When you add one of these endings to verbs ending in a vowel plus l, you need to double the l:

当单词以l结尾,需要双写l+后缀

Counsel, counsellor
Excel, excellent

(n. 法律顾问;忠告;商议;讨论;决策), (n. 顾问;参赞;辅导员(等于counselor);律师;法律顾问)
(vt. 超过;擅长), (adj. 卓越的;极好的;杰出的)

Double the final consonant when adding these endings to verbs that end with a single vowel plus a consonant, when the stress is at the end of the verb:

当单词以单个元音+辅音结尾,并且重音在单词末尾,双写末尾的辅音再加后缀:

Refer, referral
Begin, beginning
Forget, forgettable

(vt. 涉及;委托;归诸于;使…求助于), (n. 参照;提及;被推举的人;转诊病人)
(vt. 开始), (n. 开始;起点)
(vt. 忘记;忽略), (adj. 可忘记的;容易被忘的)

Don't double the final consonant, if the word ends with a single vowel plus a consonant, and the stress is not at the end of the word:

当单词以单个元音+辅音结尾,并且重音不在单词末尾,不要双写末尾的辅音,直接加后缀:

Visit, visitor
Common,  commoner

(n. 访问;参观;逗留), (n. 访问者,参观者;视察者;候鸟)
(n. 普通;平民;公有地), (n. 平民;自费学生;下议院议员)

If the word only has one syllable and ends with a single vowel plus a consonant, double the final consonant:

如果这个词是单音节词,且以单个元音+辅结尾音,双写最后的辅音:

Stop, stoppable
dim, dimmer

(n. 停止;车站;障碍;逗留), (adj. 可停止的)
(n. 笨蛋,傻子), (n. [车辆] 调光器;光暗掣;衰减器)

Don't double the final consonant if the verb ends with two vowels plus a consonant:

双元音加辅音结尾,不要双写最后的辅音:

Sleep, sleeper
Treat, treatable

(n. 睡眠), (n. 卧车;卧铺;枕木;睡眠者)
(n. 请客;款待), (adj. 能治疗的;好对付的;能处理的)

In British English, when you add the endings -ous, -ious, -ary, -ation, -ific, -ize, and -ise to a word which ends in -our, you need to change the -our to –or before adding the ending:

在英式英语中,当单词以-our结尾,在单词后添加-ous, -ious, -ary, -ation, -ific, -ize, 或–ise后缀时,需要先将our改写成or再添加后缀:

Humour, humorous
Glamour, glamorize

(n. 幽默(等于humor);诙谐), (adj. 诙谐的,幽默的;滑稽的,可笑的)
(n. 魅力,魔力;迷人的美), (vt. 美化;使有魅力)

But when you are adding other endings, the -our spelling stays the same:

但是当你添加其他的后缀时,拼写保持不变:

Colour, colourful
Favour, favourite

(n. 颜色;风格;气色,面色;外貌), (adj. 鲜艳的;生动的;色彩丰富的;富有趣味的)
(n. 偏爱;赞同;善行), (n. 特别喜爱的人(或物))

【文章来源:沪江英语】

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