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谷歌声称在量子计算方面取得重大突破

Google Claims Major Breakthrough in Quantum Computing

谷歌声称在量子计算方面取得重大突破

Google says it has reached a major breakthrough in quantum computing research.

谷歌声称在量子计算研究方面取得了重大突破。

Scientists reported Wednesday in the publication Nature about successful experiments involving quantum technology.

科学家周三在《自然》杂志上报告了涉及量子技术的成功实验。

The team said that, in one test, its quantum computer processor was able to complete a complex mathematical problem in just 200 seconds.The same problem would have taken the world’s fastest supercomputer 10,000 years to complete, the scientists said.

该团队表示,在一项测试中,其量子计算机能够在200秒内完成一个复杂的数学问题。科学家们表示,同样一个问题将会需要全球最快的超级计算机花费1万年时间来完成。

Researchers described the new breakthrough as "quantum supremacy."This term describes a point at which a quantum computer can perform a calculation that a traditional computer could never complete within its lifetime.

研究人员称这一新突破为“量子霸权。”这个术语描述了量子计算机可以执行传统计算机终其一生无法完成的计算。

Quantum computing is a still-developing technology, it is designed to greatly speed up the processing of information.Experts believe quantum computers could on day revolutionize many industries.Major technology companies besides Google are also working to develop the technology.They include Microsoft, IBM and Intel.

量子计算是一项仍在开发中的技术,它旨在极大地加快信息处理的速度。专家们认为,量子计算机有一天可能会革新许多行业。除了谷歌公司之外,其它大型科技公司也在努力开发这项技术。这些公司包括微软、国际商用机器公司以及英特尔公司。

Traditional computers process information as a series of bits.Each bit can be either a zero or a one in the binary language of computing.But quantum bits, know as qubits, can be both zero and one at the same time.

传统计算机将信息作为一系列字节来处理。在计算机的二进制语言中,每个字节是0或者1。但是量子比特可以同时为0或者1。

These special properties can theoretically permit a quantum computer to perform calculations at far higher speeds than today’s fastest supercomputers.Quantum computing could be useful in understanding complex areas of chemistry, engineering and physics.

从理论上讲,这种特性可以使量子计算机以比当今最快的超级计算机更快的速度来执行计算。量子计算对于理解化学、工程和物理的复杂领域很有帮助。

The Google team reported it designed a quantum processor that uses 54 qubits.Researchers asked the quantum system to predict likely outcomes of a number generator similar to rolling dice for example.The problem was designed to be extremely difficult for a traditional computer to solve.

这支谷歌团队报告称,它设计了一个54比特字节的量子处理器。研究人员要求该量子系统预测一种类似于扔骰子的随机数字生成器可能生成的结果。这个问题被设计为传统计算机很难解决。

Google said its computer, called Sycamore, sampled and confirmed the correctness of all the solutions within 200 seconds.The scientists claimed this process wa hundreds of millions of times faster than any existing supercomputer.

谷歌称其Sycamore计算机在200秒内采样并确认了所有解决方案的正确性。科学家声称这一过程比任何现有的超级计算机都要快数亿倍。

They estimated a traditional computer would have taken at least 10,000 years to complete the same problem.

他们估计一台传统计算机至少需要花费1万年时间才能解决相同的问题。

In a statement, Google chief Sundar Pichai said the superfast computing speed was only possible "because of the quality of control we have over the qubits."He said Google’s methods also reduced the number of errors, which can be a major problem in quantum computing."Our experiment showed the ability to perform a computation with few enough errors at a large enough scale to outperform a classical computer," he said.

谷歌公司负责人桑达尔·皮查伊在一份声明中表示,由于我们对量子比特拥有的控制质量,才实现了这种超快的计算速度。他说,谷歌的方法还减少了错误的数量,而这可能是量子计算中的一个主要问题。他说:“我们的实验表明,我们有能力在足够大规模的计算中以足够少的错误来超越传统计算机。

IBM quickly disputed Google’s claim that the experiment had shown "quantum supremacy."IBM is currently developing its own 53-qubit quantum processor.IBM researchers said in a statement that Google had greatly underestimated the abilities of a traditional supercomputer.They argued that such existing systems coul actually complete the problem used in the Google experiment in 2.5 days, and with greater exactness.

国际商用机器公司很快对谷歌公司声称该实验展示出“量子霸权”的说法提出了质疑。该公司目前也在开发自己的53量子比特的量子处理器。国际商用机器公司的研究人员在一份声明中表示,谷歌大大低估了传统超级计算机的能力。他们认为,这类现有的系统可以在2.5天内以更高的准确性完成谷歌公司实验中用到的问题。

IBM did say Google’s experiment was "an excellent demonstration" of the progress in quantum computing technology.However, it said it is not correct to present the project as proof that quantum computers "are supreme" over traditional computers.

国际商用机器公司表示,谷歌的实验是量子计算技术取得进步的“绝佳例证。”但是它表示,将这个项目作为量子计算机对传统计算机取得霸权的证据是不正确的。

John Preskill is a professor at California Institute of Technology.He first came up with the term quantum supremacy.Preskill wrote in a statement that he considers Google’s results a major step in the search for "practical quantum computers."He hopes the experiment will help push research into new areas.But he also said "much work is needed before quantum computers become a practical reality."He predicted that more useful results of quantum computing in society "may still be decades away."

约翰·普雷斯基尔是加州理工学院的教授。他最先提出了量子霸权这个术语。普雷斯基尔在一份声明中写道,他认为谷歌的实验结果是寻找“实用性量子计算机”的重要一步。他希望这项实验将会有助于把研究推向新的领域。但是他也表示,“要实现量子计算机还有很多工作要做。”他预言量子计算取得更有用的社会成果“可能仍然需要数十年之久。”

I’m Bryan Lynn.

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