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科学家测试系统来预测、控制闪电

Scientists Test Systems to Predict, Control Lightning

科学家测试系统来预测,控制闪电

Scientists say they have developed a system that uses machine learning to predict when and where lightning will strike.

科学家们说他们已经开发出一种系统机器学习来预测闪电何时何地会袭击。

Researchers report the system is able to predict lightning strikes up to 30 minutes before they happen within a 30-kilometer area.

研究人员报告说,该系统能够预测闪电在30公里范围内发生前30分钟的情况。

The research was led by engineers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland. The results were reported in the publication Climate and Atmospheric Science.

这项研究由瑞士洛桑联邦理工学院的工程师领导。研究结果发表在《气候与大气科学》杂志上。

Lightning is a strong burst of electricity in the atmosphere. It is one of the oldest observed weather events on Earth. It can strike between clouds or between a cloud and the ground. Since lightning carries an extremely powerful electrical charge, it can be destructive and deadly.

闪电是在大气中产生的一种强烈的电流。它是地球上观测到的最古老的天气事件之一。它可以在云层之间或云层与地面之间撞击。由于闪电携带极强的电荷,它具有破坏性和致命性。

It is difficult to know exactly how many people die of lightning-related causes. European researchers have estimated that between 6,000 and 24,000 people are killed by lightning worldwide each year. The strikes can also cause power outages, destroy property, damage electrical equipment and start forest fires.

很难确切知道有多少人死于闪电相关的原因。欧洲研究人员估计,全世界每年有6000至24000人死于闪电。闪电袭击还可能导致断电、破坏财产、损坏电气设备和引发森林火灾。

For this reason, climate scientists have long sought to develop methods to predict and control lightning. In the United States and other places, ground-based sensing devices are used to identify strikes as they happen. But, no system has been created to effectively predict or stop lightning.

因此,气候学家长期以来一直致力于开发预测和控制雷电的方法。在美国和其他地方,地面传感设备被用来识别发生的闪电袭击。但是,还没有一个系统来有效地预测或阻止闪电。

The system tested in the experiments uses a combination of data from weather stations and machine learning methods. The researchers developed a prediction model that was trained to recognize weather conditions that were likely to cause lightning.

在实验中测试的系统使用了气象站的数据和机器学习方法。研究人员开发了一种预测模型,用于识别可能导致闪电的天气条件。

The model was created with data collected over a 12-year period from 12 Swiss weather stations in cities and mountain areas. The data related to four main surface conditions: air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed.

这个模型是根据瑞士12个城市和山区气象站在12年内收集的数据建立的。这些数据与四种主要的地表条件有关:气压、气温、相对湿度和风速。

The atmospheric data was placed into a machine learning algorithm, which compared it to records of lightning strikes. Researchers say the algorithm was then able to learn the conditions under which lightning happens.

大气数据被输入进机器学习算法中。算法把数据与雷击记录进行比较。研究人员说,该算法能够了解闪电发生时的条件。

Once trained, the system made predictions that proved correct almost 80 percent of the time, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology said in a statement. "It can now be used anywhere."

瑞士联邦理工学院在一份声明中表示:“一旦经过训练,该系统做出的预测几乎有80%是正确的。”“它现在可以在任何地方使用。”

Amirhossein Mostajabi is a PhD student at the institute who led the development of the method. He said current systems for gathering such data are slow and complex and require costly collection equipment like radar or satellites.

·Amirhossein Mostajabi是该研究所的博士生,他领导了该方法的开发。他说,目前收集这些数据的系统缓慢而复杂,需要昂贵的收集设备,如雷达或卫星。

Our method uses data that can be obtained from any weather station, Mostajabi said. This will improve data collection in very remote areas not covered by radar and satellite or in places where communication systems have been cut, he added.

“我们的方法使用的数据可以从任何气象站获得。”Mostajabi说。他补充说,这将改善未被雷达和卫星覆盖的非常偏远地区或通信系统被切断的地区的数据收集。

The researchers plan to keep developing the technology in partnership with a European effort that aims to create a lightning protection system. The effort is called the European Laser Lightning Rod project.

研究人员计划继续与旨在建立防雷系统的欧洲合作开发这项技术。这项工作被称为欧洲激光避雷针项目。

Scientists working on the Paris-based project are experimenting with a laser technology that could someday control lightning activity. The idea is that powerful, ground-based lasers can be positioned in the sky to direct energy from lightning.

科学家们致力于巴黎项目正在试验一种激光技术,这种技术有一天可以控制闪电活动。这个想法是,强大的地面激光可以定位在天空中,从闪电中直接获得能量。

The experiments involve the use of lasers to transfer lightning charges from clouds to the ground. The method uses a lightning rod placed at the base of the laser to take in electrical charges from lightning in the clouds.

这些实验包括使用激光转移闪电从云到地面。方法使用避雷针放置在激光的底部,从云中的闪电中吸收电荷。

Researchers say laboratory testing has shown that lasers can be used as a way to guide lightning to a direct, safe path to the ground. They hope that such technology can one day be deployed as protection against lightning strikes. Possible uses could be at power plants, airports or places where large crowds gather.

研究人员说,实验室测试表明,激光可以用来引导闪电直接、安全地到达地面。他们希望有一天这种技术能被用于防雷击。可能用于发电厂、机场或大量人群聚集的地方。

I'm Bryan Lynn.

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