Finn: Hello and welcome to this episode of 6 Minute Vocabulary. I'm Finn...
Feifei: ...and I'm Feifei. Hi!
Finn: Today we're going to be talking about contractions, like I've meaning I have, or isn't meaning is not. We're going to talk about what these contractions mean, and how to pronounce them.
Feifei: That's right, and learning to use contractions like I've or isn't when you're speaking will make your English sound much more fluent and natural.
我们今天来学缩略形式，比如I've意思是I have, isn't意思是is not. 我们来讨论这些缩略形式的释义和发音。
Finn: And that's got to be good news. As usual, we'll have lots of examples...
Feifei: There'll be a short quiz...
Finn: And finally we'll give you a tip to help you with your vocabulary studies.
Feifei: So, let's start with an example. Listen to Bill talking about his wife and his brother.
Finn: While you're listening, try to answer this question: has Bill's brother ever visited the US?
INSERT: Bill: My wife and I live in London. We've been married for about five years. I've always lived in London, but she's lived in Germany, and the US, and lots of different places. I've never been to the US, but my brother's been there many times, because his wife is from New York.
Finn: So, Feifei asked you: has Bill's brother ever visited the US?
Feifei: And the answer is yes, Bill's brother has been to the US many times, because his wife is American. She's from New York.
Finn: Did you get the answer right? Of course you did!
Feifei: Ok, now here is another question. How long have Bill and his wife been married? Listen again and check...
My wife and I live in London. We've been married for about five years.
Feifei: He said 'We've been married for about five years'.
Finn: Did you notice that he didn't say we have been, he said we've been? When we're speaking, we often shorten the word have, and just say -ve instead.
Feifei: So I have becomes I've, you have becomes you've, we have becomes we've and they have becomes they've.
你有没有注意到他没说 we have been，而是we've been?我们说话的时候，我们通常会缩短have这个词，而只说-ve。
Finn: We use contractions like we've a lot when we're speaking, but sometimes we write them, too - especially when we're writing something informal or unofficial, like an email or a postcard.
所以I have就变为I've, you have变为 you've, we have 变为 we've and they have 变为they've.
Feifei: Now, when you're writing contractions, remember to use an apostrophe. So, for example, we've is spelled w - e - apostrophe - v - e.
Finn: The apostrophe shows that a letter, or more than one, is missing.
写缩略语时要记得使用撇号。例如，we've拼写为w - e –撇号 - v - e来拼写。
Feifei: That's right, so when we write we've instead of we have, we miss the letters h and a from the word 'have'. And the apostrophe shows that these letters have been skipped.
Finn: Right, ok. Here's another question about Bill. How many different places has his wife lived in? Can you remember? Here's a clip.
没错，所以当我们写' we've '的时候，我们会省掉单词'have'中的字母h和a，而不是'have'。撇号表示这些字母被省略了。
Bill: I've always lived in London, but she's lived in Germany, and the US, and lots of different places.
Feifei: He said that she's lived in lots of different places. And he mentioned two of them: Germany, and the US.
Finn: Did you notice another contraction there? Bill said she's lived. It's the short form of she has lived. She's lived.
Feifei: This is a very common one. Instead of has, lots of English speakers say -'s /z/ instead.
注意到此处另一个缩略形式了吗？Bill说的是 she's lived，是为she has lived的缩略形式。
Finn: So instead of he has we say he's, instead of she has it's she's.
这是很常见的。很多说英语的人会说- s /z/而不是has。
Feifei: Again, when you use this -'s /z/ contraction instead of has when you're writing, don't forget to use the apostrophe.
所以我们he's而不是he has ，she's而不是she has.
Finn: So, he's is spelled h - e - apostrophe - s, and she's is spelled s - h - e - apostrophe - s.
同样，当你在写作时使用- s /z/缩写而不是has时，不要忘记使用撇号。
You're listening to BBC Learning English.com
所以，he's是拼写h - e -撇号- s，而she's是拼写s - h - e -撇号- s。
Feifei: And now it's time for a quiz. Number one. When we're speaking, we don't normally say 'I have lived here for three years' - what do we say?
Finn: We say, 'I've lived here for three years'.
是时候做个小测验了。第一题：我们说话时，通常不会用'I have lived here for three years'这样的表达——我们会怎么说呢？
Feifei: Easy question, right?
我们会说'I've lived here for three years'.
Finn: I think so.
Feifei: Here's another one: Which pronunciation is correct? Is it a) He's /s/ a teacher or is it b) He's /z/ a teacher?
Finn: It's b) He's /z/ a teacher. And one last question. In the sentence We've been listening to 6 Minute Vocabulary, how do you spell we've?
第二题：哪个发音是正确的？是He's /s/ a teacher还是b) He's /z/ a teacher?
Feifei: It's w - e - apostrophe - v - e.
选b）He's /z/ a teacher. 最后一题：在句子‘We've been listening to 6 Minute Vocabulary’中，we've该如何发音？
Finn: That's it. Before we go, here's a top tip to help you learn vocabulary.
发作w - e – 撇号 - v - e.
Feifei: Vocabulary learning isn't a silent activity! You'll learn words more effectively if you say them out loud. It doesn't matter if nobody's listening - say the words out loud anyway!
Finn: Absolutely. Very good. There's more about this at bbclearningenglish.com. Join us again soon for more 6 Minute Vocabulary. Bye!